The image above is of the dorsal subventricular zone in a young mouse (postnatal day 18) showing expression of Endothelin-1 (green), Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, red) and cell nuclei (DAPI, blue). GFAP+ astrocytes express the Endothelin-1 protein.
Work in the Gallo Laboratory is focused on postnatal neural development and the impact of injury and disease on development and regeneration of neurons and glia. The lab uses a multidisciplinary approach to study postnatal development under normal physiological and pathological conditions. We are particularly interested in identifying cellular signals and molecular pathways that regulate development of neurons and glia in white matter, cortex and cerebellum, and in the possibility of translating our understanding of developmental mechanisms to cell repair and regeneration after injury of the brain. To reach these goals, the Gallo Laboratory is using integrated molecular, cellular, anatomical, electrophysiological and behavioral approaches applied to animal models of brain injury and disease, including perinatal brain injury (perinatal hypoxia and hyperoxia/oxidative stress), Down syndrome and multiple sclerosis.
We have been particularly interested in investigating the neural progenitor cell response to injury/disease, and in identifying novel molecular mechanisms that can enhance neural repair and functional recovery. More recently, we have also integrated studies in mouse models — which offer the advantage of direct genetic manipulation of specific signaling pathways — with investigation in large mammals (piglets), which display brain anatomy and cellular structure practically identical to humans. These studies are performed in collaboration with Nobuyuki Ishibashi, MD, at Children’s National Hospital. We have established animal models of perinatal brain injury that occurs in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants born prematurely. These models reproduce gray and white matter (WM) alterations observed in brains of premature infants. We are now focused on the identification of the cellular and physiological mechanisms that underlie cognitive, behavioral and motor abnormalities found in premature infants, with a particular focus on cerebellum and its functions. Ongoing studies integrate analysis in animal models and post-mortem human brains.
Vittorio Gallo, PhD
Vittorio Gallo, PhD is senior vice president and chief scientific officer for Seattle Children’s Research Institute and serves as a member of the Seattle Children’s Executive Leadership Team.
Dr. Gallo obtained his PhD in Biochemistry and Neurobiology at the University of Rome, Italy, working with Prof. Giulio Levi and the Nobel Laureate Prof. Rita-Levi Montalcini. He did his postdoctoral work at the MRC Developmental Neurobiology Unit, London (EMBO Fellow) at the Laboratory of Preclinical Pharmacology, NIMH, NIH (Fogarty Fellow), and in the Department of Pharmacology at University College, London (EMBO Fellow).
In 1989, he became visiting scientist and NATO Fellow in the Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, NICHD, NIH, and then in 1992 Chief of the Section on Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology at NICHD, where he became a tenured investigator in 1995.
In 2002, he moved to Children’s National Medical Center to become the Director of the Center for Neuroscience Research, where he built a research center focused on neural development and neurodevelopmental disorders. Dr. Gallo served as both interim chief academic officer for Children’s National Hospital and interim director of Children’s National Research Institute. He was also associate dean for Child Health Research, and a professor of pediatrics, pharmacology and physiology at George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences.
Dr. Gallo joined Seattle Children's as senior vice president and chief scientific officer in September 2023.