Ann J Melvin, MD

Ann J Melvin, MD

Infectious Disease and Virology, Infectious Disease Research

On staff since November 1993

Academic Title: Professor, Pediatrics

Research Center: Center for Clinical and Translational Research

Language (Other than English): Spanish

  • Biography

    Ann J. Melvin, MD, MPH: Professor of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. She is Director of the Pediatric HIV program at SCH. Her primary research interests are in the antiretroviral management of HIV disease in children and prevention and management of complications of HIV treatment.



    Dr. Melvin is director of the Pediatric HIV program at SCH. Her research interests are in the antiretroviral management of HIV disease in children and prevention and management of complications of HIV treatment. Dr. Melvin is principle investigator of the International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials unit at the Seattle Children’s Research Institute, sponsored by the NIH. She is a vice-chair of the DHHS Panel on Antiretroviral Therapy and Medical Management of HIV-Infected Children: Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection. Additional research interests include diagnosis and management of viral infections in infants, particularly HSV and CMV. She is also the Faculty Director of the Recruitment Support Service and co-director of the Safety Monitoring Program of the Institute for Translational Health Sciences of the University of Washington. She collaborates with Drs. Frenkel, Wagner and Englund.



  • Patient Testimonials

  • Awards and Honors

    Award Name Award Description Awarded By Award Date
    SEATTLE TOP DOCTOR - 2016 Seattle Met Magazine 2016
    Family Choice Award Seattle Children's Hospital 2002
    SEATTLE TOP DOCTOR - 2022 Seattle Magazine 2022
  • Publications

    Manuscripts in Refereed Journals

    • Qin X, Melvin AJ
      Laboratory Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Cases of Suspected Child Sexual Abuse (miniReview).
      31723015 Journal of clinical microbiology, 2019 Nov 13
    • Holbein MEB, Hammack BN, Melvin AJ, Knox TA
      Via media: Role and responsibilities of the independent safety officer.
      31660239 Journal of clinical and translational science, 2019 Aug. : 3(4)147-151 PMCID:PMC6799057
    • Vora SB, Amlie-Lefond C, Perez FA, Melvin AJ
      Varicella-Associated Stroke.
      29681448 The Journal of pediatrics, 2018 Aug. : 199281-281.e1
    • Melvin AJ, Warshaw M, Compagnucci A, Saidi Y, Harrison L, Turkova A, Tudor-Williams G, PENPACT-1 (PENTA 9/PACTG 390/ANRS 103) Study Team.
      Hepatic, Renal, Hematologic, and Inflammatory Markers in HIV-Infected Children on Long-term Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy.
      28903520 Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, 2017 Sep 1 : 6(3)e109-e115 PMCID:PMC5907869
    • Warshaw MG, Carey VJ, McFarland EJ, Dawson L, Abrams E, Melvin A, Fairlie L, Spiegel H, Jay J, Agwu AL, IMPAACT P1094 Team.
      The interaction between equipoise and logistics in clinical trials: A case study.
      28135804 Clinical trials (London, England), 2017 June : 14(3)314-318 PMCID:PMC5446272
    • Melvin AJ, Montepiedra G, Aaron L, Meyer WA 3rd, Spiegel HM, Borkowsky W, Abzug MJ, Best BM, Crain MJ, Borum PR, Graham B, Anthony P, Shin K, Siberry GK, P1063 Study Team.
      Safety and Efficacy of Atorvastatin in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected Children, Adolescents and Young Adults With Hyperlipidemia.
      27749649 The Pediatric infectious disease journal, 2017 Jan. : 36(1)53-60 PMCID:PMC5154931
    • Agwu AL, Warshaw MG, McFarland EJ, Siberry GK, Melvin AJ, Wiznia AA, Fairlie L, Boyd S, Harding P, Spiegel HML, Abrams EJ, Carey VJ, P1094 Study Team.
      Decline in CD4 T lymphocytes with monotherapy bridging strategy for non-adherent adolescents living with HIV infection: Results of the IMPAACT P1094 randomized trial.
      28604824 PloS one, 2017 : 12(6)e0178075 PMCID:PMC5467803
    • Wolf ER, Beste S, Barr E, Wallace J, MacFarland E, Abzug M, Darrow J, Melvin AJ
      Health outcomes of international HIV-infected adoptees in the U.S.
      26629872 Pediatr Infect Dis J, 2016 : 35(4)422-7
    • Melvin AJ, Aaron L, Montepiedra G, Meyer WA, Spiegel HM, Borkowsky W, Abzug MJ, Best BM, Crain MJ, Borum PR, Graham B, Anthony P, Shin K, Siberry GK
      Safety and efficacy of atorvastatin in HIV-infected children and youth with hyperlipidemia
      27749649 Pediatr Infect Dis J, 2016
    • Stein M, Shaffer M, Echo-Hawk A, Smith J, Stapleton A, Melvin AJ
      Research START: A Multi-Method Study of Barriers and Accelerators of Recruiting Research Participants
      26643413 Clin Trans Sci, 2015 : 8(6)647-54
    • Yin DE, Warshaw MG, Miller WC, Castro H, Fiscus SA, Harper LM, Harrison LJ, Klein NJ, Lewis J, Melvin AJ, Tudor-Williams G, McKinney RE Jr, PENPACT-1 (PENTA 9/PACTG 390) Study Team
      Using CD4 percentage and age to optimize pediatric antiretroviral therapy initiation.
      25266426 Pediatrics, 2014 Oct. : 134(4)e1104-16 PMCID:PMC4179097
    • Langat A, Benki-Nugent S, Wamalwa D, Tapia K, Ngugi E, Diener L, Richardson BA, Melvin A, John-Stewart GC
      Lipid changes in Kenyan HIV-1-infected infants initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy by 1 year of age.
      23385950 The Pediatric infectious disease journal, 2013 July : 32(7)e298-304 PMCID:PMC3737429
    • Healy S, Gupta S, Melvin A
      HIV/HBV Co-infection in Children and Antiviral Therapy
      Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy, 2013 : 11251-63
    • Melvin AJ, Edwards K. Malone J, Hassell L, Wilfond BS.
      Role for CTSAs in Leveraging a Distributed Research Infrastructure to Engage Diverse Stakeholders in Emergent Research Policy Development
      23399091 Clinical and Translational Science, 2013 : 6(1)57-9
    • Englund JA, Karron RA, Cunningham CK, LaRussa P, Melvin A, Yogev R, Handelsman E, Siberry GK, Thumar B, Schappell E, Bull CV, Chu HY, Schaap-Nutt A, Buchholz U, Collins PL, Schmidt AC and the International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT) P1096 Study Group
      Safety and Infectivity of Two Doses of Live -Attenuated Recombinant Cold-Passaged Human Parainfluenza Type 3 Virus Vaccine rHPIV3cp45 in HPIV3-Seronegative Young Children
      24103895 Vaccine, 2013 : 31(48)5706-12 PMCID:3889708
    • Healy SA, Mohan KM, Melvin AJ, Wald
      Primary maternal Herpes Simplex Virus- 1 gingivostomatitis during pregnancy and neonatal herpes: case series and literature review
      Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Disease Society, 2012 : 1299-305
    • Siberry GK, Warshaw MG, Williams PL, Spector SA, Decker MD, Jean-Philippe P, Yogev R, Heckman BE, Manzella A, Roa J, Nachman S, Lujan-Zilbermann J, IMPAACT P1065 Protocol Team
      Safety and immunogenicity of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine in 2- to 10-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-infected children.
      21987006 The Pediatric infectious disease journal, 2012 Jan. : 31(1)47-52 PMCID:PMC3252429
    • Penpact 1 Study Team (Melvin AJ)
      First-line antiretroviral therapy with a protease inhibitor
      21288774 Thee Lancet-Infectious Diseases, 2011 : 11(4)273-83 PMCID:31111069
    • Jacobson DL, Williams P, Tassiopoulos K, Melvin A, Hazra R, Farley J.
      Clinical management and follow-up of hypercholesterolemia among perinatally HIV-infected children enrolled in the PACTG 219C study
      21602698 Journal of Acquired Immune Deficency Syndromes, 2011 : 57(5)413-20 PMCID:3159838
    • Levin MJ, Moscicki AB, Song LY, Fenton T, Meyer WA 3rd, Read JS, Handelsman EL, Nowak B, Sattler CA, Saah A, Radley DR, Esser MT, Weinberg A, IMPAACT P1047 Protocol Team
      Safety and immunogenicity of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) vaccine in HIV-infected children 7 to 12 years old.
      20574412 Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999), 2010 Oct. : 197-204
    • Wagner TA, Tobin NH, McKernan JL, Xu M, Melvin AJ, Mohan KM, Learn GH, Mullins JI, Frenkel LM
      Increased mutations in Env and Pol suggest greater HIV-1 replication in sputum-derived viruses compared with blood-derived viruses.
      19349849 AIDS (London, England), 2009 May 15 : 923-8
    • Patel K, Hernán MA, Williams PL, Seeger JD, McIntosh K, Dyke RB, Seage GR 3rd
      Long-term effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy on CD4+ cell evolution among children and adolescents infected with HIV: 5 years and counting.
      18426371 Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 2008 Jun 1 : 1751-60
    • Williams PL, Van Dyke R, Eagle M, Smith D, Vincent C, Ciupak G, Oleske J, Seage GR 3rd
      Association of site-specific and participant-specific factors with retention of children in a long-term pediatric HIV cohort study.
      18413359 American journal of epidemiology, 2008 Jun 1 : 1375-86
    • Tassiopoulos K, Williams PL, Seage GR 3rd, Crain M, Oleske J, Farley J
      Association of hypercholesterolemia incidence with antiretroviral treatment, including protease inhibitors, among perinatally HIV-infected children.
      18209684 Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999), 2008 Apr 15 : 607-14
    • Melvin AJ, Kang M, Hitti J, Livingston E, Cohn SE, Stocker V, Ross AC, Watts H, McComsey GA
      Cord blood lipids in infants born to HIV-1-infected women treated with combination antiretroviral therapy.
      18572747 Antiviral therapy, 2008 : 349-55
    • McComsey G, Kang M, Ross A, Lebrecht D, Livingston E, Melvin A, Hitti J, Cohn SE, and Walker UA for the AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5084
      Increased mtDNA levels without change in mitochondrial enzymes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of infants born to HIV infected mothers on antiretroviral therapy
      18474497 HIV Clinical Trails, 2008 : 9(2)126-36 PMCID:3895476
    • Gupta D, Lhewa D, Viswanath R, Jacob SM, Parameshwari S, Radhakrishnan R, Seidel K, Frenkel LM, Samuel NM, Melvin AJ
      Effectiveness of antenatal group HIV voluntary counseling and testing services in rural India.
      17563273 AIDS education and prevention : official publication of the International Society for AIDS Education, 2007 June : 187-97
    • Hitti J, Andersen J, McComsey G, Liu T, Melvin A, Smith L, Stek A, Aberg J, Hull A, Alston-Smith B, Watts DH, Livingston E, AIDS Clinical Trials Group 5084 Study Team
      Protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy and glucose tolerance in pregnancy: AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5084.
      17403409 American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 2007 April : 196(4)331.e1-7
    • Holte SE, Melvin AJ, Mullins JI, Tobin NH, Frenkel LM
      Density-dependent decay in HIV-1 dynamics.
      16540927 Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999), 2006 March : 266-76
    • Johnson DC, McFarland EJ, Muresan P, Fenton T, McNamara J, Read JS, Hawkins E, Bouquin PL, Estep SG, Tomaras GD, Vincent CA, Rathore M, Melvin AJ, Gurunathan S, Lambert J
      Safety and immunogenicity of an HIV-1 recombinant canarypox vaccine in newborns and infants of HIV-1-infected women.
      16288378 The Journal of infectious diseases, 2005 Dec 15 : 2129-33
    • Tobin NH, Learn GH, Holte SE, Wang Y, Melvin AJ, McKernan JL, Pawluk DM, Mohan KM, Lewis PF, Mullins JI, Frenkel LM
      Evidence that low-level viremias during effective highly active antiretroviral therapy result from two processes: expression of archival virus and replication of virus.
      16014925 Journal of virology, 2005 Aug. : 9625-34
    • Melvin AJ, Alarcon J, Velasquez C, Rodriguez C, Piscoya J, Giraldo A, Dinh P, Frenkel LM
      Rapid HIV type 1 testing of women presenting in late pregnancy with unknown HIV status in Lima, Peru.
      15585094 AIDS research and human retroviruses, 2004 Oct. : 1046-52
    • Frenkel LM, Wang Y, Learn GH, McKernan JL, Ellis GM, Mohan KM, Holte SE, De Vange SM, Pawluk DM, Melvin AJ, Lewis PF, Heath LM, Beck IA, Mahalanabis M, Naugler WE, Tobin NH, Mullins JI
      Multiple viral genetic analyses detect low-level human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication during effective highly active antiretroviral therapy.
      12719565 Journal of virology, 2003 May : 5721-30
    • Melvin, A. J., and K. M. Mohan
      Response to immunization with measles, tetanus, and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines in children who have human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and are treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy
      12777579 Pediatrics, 2003 : 111(6 pt 1)e641-4
    • Melvin AJ, Lewis PF, Mohan KM, Naugler WS, Frenkel LM
      Efficacy and toxicity of antiretroviral therapy using 4 or more agents: application of a strategy for antiretroviral management in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children.
      12038889 Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine, 2002 June : 568-73
    • Beck, I. A., K. D. Drennan, A. J. Melvin, K. M. Mohan, A. M. Herz, J. Alarcon, J. Piscoya, C. Velazquez, and L. M. Frenkel
      Simple, sensitive, and specific detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype B DNA in dried blood samples for diagnosis in infants in the field.
      11136743 Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2001 : 39(1)29-33
    • Melvin, A. J., S. Lennon, K. M. Mohan, and J. Q. Purnell
      Metabolic abnormalities in HIV type 1-infected children treated and not treated with protease inhibitors
      11522181 AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2001 : 17(12)1117-23
    • Frenkel, L. M., E. V. Capparelli, W. M. Dankner, J. Xu, I. L. Smith, A. Ballow, M. Culnane, J. S. Read, M. Thompson, K. M. Mohan, A. Shaver, C. A. Robinson, M. J. Stempien, S. K. Burchett, A. J. Melvin, W. Borkowsky, A. Petru, A. Kovacs, R. Yogev, J. Goldsmith, E. J. McFarland, and S. A. Spector
      Oral ganciclovir in children: pharmacokinetics, safety, tolerance, and antiviral effects. The Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group
      11069232 Journal of Infectious Disease, 2000 : 182(6)1616-24
    • Melvin, A.J., Rodrigo, A. G, Mohan K.M., Lewis, P.A., Manns-Arcuino, L.A., Coombs R.W., Mullins J.I., Frenkel L.M
      HIV-1 dynamics in children
      10225229 Journal of Acquired Immune Defiency Syndromes and Human Retro Virology, 1999 : 20(5)468-73
    • Melvin, A. J
      Anti-retroviral therapy for HIV-infected children--toward maximal effectiveness
      1046243 The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 1999 : 18(8)723-4
    • Melvin, A.J., Rodrigo, A. G, Mohan K.M., Lewis, P.A., Manns-Arcuino, L.A., Coombs R.W., Mullins J.I., Frenkel L.M
      HIV-1 dynamics in children, 1999
      10225229 Journal of Acquired Immune Deficency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology, 1999 : 20(5)468-73
    • Melvin, A. J., and L. M. Frenkel.
      Prevention of mother-to-infant transmission of HIV-1
      9211414 Molecular Medicine Today, 1997 : 3(6)242-5
    • Edelstein, R. E., L. A. Arcuino, J. P. Hughes, A. J. Melvin, K. M. Mohan, P. D. King, C. L. McLellan, B. L. Murante, B. P. Kassman, and L. M. Frenkel
      Risk of mother-to-infant transmission of HIV-1 is not reduced in 32ccr5/CCR5 heterozygotes
      Journal of Acquired Immune Syndromes and Human Retrovirology, 1997 : 16(4)243-6
    • Melvin, A. J., K. M. Mohan, L. A. Arcuino, R. E. Edelstein, and L. M. Frenkel
      Clinical, virologic and immunologic responses of children with advanced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 disease treated with protease inhibitors
      9380474 The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 1997 : 16(10)968-74
    • Melvin, A. J., S. K. Burchett, D. H. Watts, J. Hitti, J. P. Hughes, C. L. McLellan, P. D. King, E. J. Johnson, B. L. Williams, L. M. Frenkel, and R. W. Coom
      Effect of pregnancy and zidovudine therapy on viral load in HIV-1-infected women
      9117455 Journal of Acquired Immune Deficency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology, 1997 : 14(3)232-6
    • Melvin, A. J., G. S. Tamura, J. K. House, A. C. Hobson, R. W. Cone, L. M. Frenkel, and S. Burchett
      Lack of detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in the saliva of infected children and adolescents.
      9080928 Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 1997 : 151(3)228-32
    • Frenkel, L. M., M. K. Cowles, D. E. Shapiro, A. J. Melvin, D. H. Watts, C. McLellan, K. Mohan, B. Murante, S. Burchett, Y. J. Bryson, M. J. O'Sullivan, C. Mitchell, and D. Landers
      Analysis of the maternal components of the AIDS clinical trial group 076 zidovudine regimen in the prevention of mother-to-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1
      9086162 The Journal of Infectious Disease, 1997 : 175(4)971-4
    • Melvin, A. J., K. Mohan, and J. Dragavon
      ICD p24 antigen in HIV-infected children with low HIV-specific antibody
      11361461 Pediatric AIDS and HIV Infection, 1995 : 6(6)356-7
    • Melvin, A. J., M. E. McGurn, S. J. Bort, C. Gibson, and D. B. Lewis
      Hypomethylation of the interferon- gene correlates with its expression by primary T-lineage cells.
      7875204 European Journal of Immunology, 1995 : 25(2)426-30
    • Young, H. A., P. Ghosh, J. Ye, J. Lederer, A. Lichtman, J. R. Gerard, L. Penix, C. B. Wilson, A. J. Melvin, M. E. McGurn, and et al.
      Differentiation of the T helper phenotypes by analysis of the methylation state of the IFN-gamma gene
      7523497 Journal of Immunology, 1994 : 153(8)3603-10
    • Wilson, C. B., L. Penix, A. Melvin, and D. B. Lewis
      Lymphokine regulation and the role of abnormal regulation in immunodeficiency
      8500278 Clinical Immunology and Immunopathy, 1993 : 67(3 pt. 2)S25-32
    • Wilson, C. B., L. Penix, W. M. Weaver, A. Melvin, and D. B. Lewis.
      Ontogeny of T lymphocyte function in the neonate
      1285862 American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 1992 : 28(3-4)132-5

    Published Abstracts

    • Melvin AJ, Mohan KM, Wald A, Porter K, Wilfond BS
      Research Recruitment of Adult Survivors of Neonatal Infections: Is There a Role for Parental Consent?
      26479109 The American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB, 2015 Oct. : 15(10)58-9
    • Harrison L, Melvin A, Fiscus S, Saidi Y, Nastouli E, Harper L, Compagnucci A, Babiker A, McKinney R, Gibb D, Tudor-Williams and the PENPACT-1 (PENTA 9/PACTG 390) Study Team
      HIV-1 drug resistance and second-line treatment in children randomized to switch at low versus higher RNA thresholds.
      26322666 Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 2015 Sep 1 : 70(1)42-53 PMCID:PMC4556171
    • Melvin AJ, Mohan KM, Schiffer JT, Drolette LM, Magaret A, Corey L, Wald A
      Plasma and CSF herpes simplex virus levels at diagnosis and outcome of neonatal infection.
      25491092 The Journal of Pediatrics, 2015 April : 166(4)827-33 PMCID:PMC4380781
  • Research Funding

    Grant Title Grantor Amount Award Date
    International and Domestic Pediatric and Maternal HIV Studies Coordinating Center NIH Jun 1, 2014 - May 31, 2015
    Bone mineral density in tenofovir-exposed infants and young children Gilead Sciences Phase4 program Jun 23, 2008 - May 30, 2011
    International and Domestic Pediatric and Maternal HIV Studies Coordinating Center NIH Dec 16, 2007 - May 31, 2014
    Supplement 3 R01 NIH Sep 26, 2007 - May 30, 2011
    NIH Cooperative Agreement NIH Sep 1, 2007 - May 31, 2017
    Reservoirs of Drug-Resistant HIV-1 US-India Collaborative Research Supplement NIH Mar 1, 2005 - Feb 28, 2012


Board Certification(s)

Pediatric Infectious Diseases

Medical/Professional School

Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA


Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA


University of Washington, Seattle, WA

Clinical Interests

Prevention and treatment of pediatric HIV disease, research ethics

Research Focus Area

Translational Research