Profile

Lisa M. Frenkel, MD

Lisa M. Frenkel, MD

Infectious Disease

On staff since March 1995

Children's Title: Co-Director, Center for Global Infectious Disease Research

Academic Title: Professor, Pediatrics and Laboratory Medicine

Research Center: Center for Global Infectious Disease Research

Professor of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Laboratory Medicine; Co-Director of Pediatric Infectious Diseases Virology Clinic. Our research focuses on practical questions related to the prevention of HIV-1 infection in infants, mechanisms leading to shedding of virus in breast milk and genital tract of adults, treatment of drug-resistant virus in children and adults, and understanding mechanisms leading to the persistence of HIV infection.

Over the past 20 years, our group has conducted projects in Peru, Thailand, Mozambique, Kenya and South Africa. These studies aimed to better understand the transmission, selection and persistence of drug-resistant viruses and have included collaborations with other UW, national and international investigators. We have developed economical assays with the goal of making testing accessible to resource-poor communities, to improve the management of HIV infection. Currently, our laboratory located within Seattle Childrens Research Institute (SCRI) focuses primarily on three topics and collaborates broadly with other UW, national and international investigators.

1. Persistence of HIV infection: A major research focus of our work has been to understand the mechanisms that allow HIV to persist despite effective ART. Our group documented that among ART-treated individuals with plasma HIV RNA consistently below the limits of detection included a subset that demonstrated viral evolution, implying low-level viral replication, although the vast majority demonstrated no evolution (Frenkel, JVI, 2003). We were the first to note that transient low-level viremias, or "blips," during ART were usually comprised of populations of identical env and pol sequences (Tobin, JVI, 2005), suggesting production of clonal virus. Our subsequent studies revealed that populations of identical viral sequences in PBMC and sputum (rich in pulmonary macrophages) increase over a decade of ART (Wagner, JVI, 2013), suggesting that clonal proliferation of cells with provirus sustains HIV infection during suppressive ART. Recently, we have documented that identical env sequences have identical integration sites, providing strong supportive evidence that HIV persistence is at least in part due to cellular proliferation, and with ongoing suppressive ART, that these proviruses are increasingly integrated into genes controlling immune functions, the cell cycle or cancers suggesting that interference with these genes expression allows the infected cells to proliferate and/or survive (Wagner, Science, 2014; http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/science.1256304)

Ongoing projects (R01 AI091550 and R01 AI114348) are focused on understanding whether specific HIV integration events lead to the persistence of HIV DNA that is infectious or defective; use in vitro mutagenesis to determine the effects of specific integration events on cellular function; and on whether during acute HIV infection the antigen specificity of HIV-infected cells that would be targeted for cure in individuals who start ART during this time.

2. Systemic inflammation in HIV-infected individuals: Individuals whose viral replication is suppressed by ART continue to have biomarkers indicative of ongoing diffuse inflammation that accelerates atherosclerosis and cardio- and cerebral-vascular events. Given the timing of HIV acquisition by infected children, substantial morbidity could occur from inflammation despite suppressive ART. We hypothesize that ongoing production of viral RNA or proteins drives inflammation, rather than the alternative hypothesis that immune depletion of gut lymphocytes during acute infection allow bacterial translocation.

An ongoing project (funded by SCRI) aims to determine if low-level production of HIV virions or 16sDNA correlate with immune activation and help develop a short interventional trial to diminish inflammation.

3. HIV Resistance to antiretrovirals: Our group has conducted many studies aimed at better understanding the transmission, selection and persistence of drug-resistant viruses. We have developed economical assays with the goal of making testing accessible to resource-poor communities, to improve the management of HIV infection. Currently, we are conducting a randomized-controlled trial of our oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) detection of HIV-drug-resistance pre-ART in Kenya. The primary outcome is the rates of ART-associated suppression of viral replication among subjects randomized to testing or standard-of-care. In addition, we will analyze issues related to transfer of technology and will model the cost-effectiveness of the OLA in ART management. Secondly, with UW bioengineers, we are simplifying this OLA to make a simpler and faster assay.

Ongoing projects (R01 AI100037 and R01 AI110375) aim to better understand the role of specific transmitted mutant codons and define the threshold concentration of mutants that result in virologic failure of ART; to convert our PCR-based assay to an isothermal format; optimize Illumina-based sequencing for use as a clinical assay.

Overview

Board Certification(s)

Pediatric Infectious Diseases
Pediatrics

Medical/Professional School

University of Kansas, Lawrence

Residency

Pediatrics, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles

Clinical Interests

Prevention and treatment of pediatric HIV disease, neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) and congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections

Research Description

Over the past 20 years, our group has conducted projects in Peru, Thailand, Mozambique, Kenya and South Africa. These studies aimed to better understand the transmission, selection and persistence of drug-resistant viruses and have included collaborations with other UW, national and international investigators. We have developed economical assays with the goal of making testing accessible to resource-poor communities, to improve the management of HIV infection. Currently, our laboratory located within Seattle Children's Research Institute (SCRI) focuses primarily on three topics and collaborates broadly with other UW, national and international investigators.
1. Persistence of HIV infection: A major research focus of our work has been to understand the mechanisms that allow HIV to persist despite effective ART. Our group documented that among ART-treated individuals with plasma HIV RNA consistently below the limits of detection included a subset that demonstrated viral evolution, implying low-level viral replication, although the vast majority demonstrated no evolution (Frenkel, JVI, 2003). We were the first to note that transient low-level viremias, or "blips," during ART were usually comprised of populations of identical env and pol sequences (Tobin, JVI, 2005), suggesting production of clonal virus. Our subsequent studies revealed that populations of identical viral sequences in PBMC and sputum (rich in pulmonary macrophages) increase over a decade of ART (Wagner, JVI, 2013), suggesting that clonal proliferation of cells with provirus sustains HIV infection during suppressive ART. Recently, we have documented that identical env sequences have identical integration sites, providing strong supportive evidence that HIV persistence is at least in part due to cellular proliferation, and with ongoing suppressive ART, that these proviruses are increasingly integrated into genes controlling immune functions, the cell cycle or cancers suggesting that interference with these genes expression allows the infected cells to proliferate and/or survive (Wagner, Science, 2014; http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/science.1256304)
Ongoing projects (R01 AI091550 and R01 AI114348) are focused on understanding whether specific HIV integration events lead to the persistence of HIV DNA that is infectious or defective; use in vitro mutagenesis to determine the effects of specific integration events on cellular function; and on whether during acute HIV infection the antigen specificity of HIV-infected cells that would be targeted for cure in individuals who start ART during this time.
2. Systemic inflammation in HIV-infected individuals: Individuals whose viral replication is suppressed by ART continue to have biomarkers indicative of ongoing diffuse inflammation that accelerates atherosclerosis and cardio- and cerebral-vascular events. Given the timing of HIV acquisition by infected children, substantial morbidity could occur from inflammation despite suppressive ART. We hypothesize that ongoing production of viral RNA or proteins drives inflammation, rather than the alternative hypothesis that immune depletion of gut lymphocytes during acute infection allow bacterial translocation.
An ongoing project (funded by SCRI) aims to determine if low-level production of HIV virions or 16sDNA correlate with immune activation and help develop a short interventional trial to diminish inflammation.
3. HIV Resistance to antiretrovirals: Our group has conducted many studies aimed at better understanding the transmission, selection and persistence of drug-resistant viruses. We have developed economical assays with the goal of making testing accessible to resource-poor communities, to improve the management of HIV infection. Currently, we are conducting a randomized-controlled trial of our oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) detection of HIV-drug-resistance pre-ART in Kenya. The primary outcome is the rates of ART-associated suppression of viral replication among subjects randomized to testing or standard-of-care. In addition, we will analyze issues related to transfer of technology and will model the cost-effectiveness of the OLA in ART management. Secondly, with UW bioengineers, we are simplifying this OLA to make a simpler and faster assay.
Ongoing projects (R01 AI100037 and R01 AI110375) aim to better understand the role of specific transmitted mutant codons and define the threshold concentration of mutants that result in virologic failure of ART; to convert our PCR-based assay to an isothermal format; optimize Illumina-based sequencing for use as a clinical assay.

Lab URL

http://www.seattlechildrens.org/research/global-infectious-disease-research/frenkel-lab/

Research Focus Area

Infectious Disease, Virology

Awards and Honors

Award Name Award Description Awarded By Award Date
Best Poster of Meeting, International Workshop on HIV & Hepatitis Virus Drug Resistance 2013
Best Poster of Meeting, International Workshop on HIV and Hepatitis Virus Drug Resistance 2013
Member, (extended 4y + 2yr) NIH-NIAID AIDS Research Review Committee (AIDSRRC) 2011 - 2013
Outstanding Mentor Award of 2011, University of WA, Dept Pediatrics 2011
Extraordinary Professor in the Department of Immunology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria 2010 - 2012
Member, NIH-NIAID AIDS Research Review Committee (AIDSRRC) 2007 - 2011
Member, 4-year term, NIH AARR-3/ADDT Study Section 2002 - 2006
1st William F. Friedman Lectureship, UCLA 1994
Russel Haden Medal for medical student research Kansas University 1978

Publications

  • Frenkel LM, Kuhls TL, Nitta K, Clancy M, Howard DH, Ward P, Cherry JD
    Recurrent Bipolaris sinusitis following surgical and antifungal therapy.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal , Dec. 19 : 6(12)1130-2
  • Lehman DA, Baeten JM, McCoy CO, Weis JF, Peterson D, Mbara G, Donnell D, Thomas KK, Hendrix CW, Marzinke MA, Frenkel L, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Celum C, Overbaugh J, Matsen FA, Partners PrEP Study Team
    Risk of Drug Resistance Among Persons Acquiring HIV Within a Randomized Clinical Trial of Single- or Dual-Agent Preexposure Prophylaxis.
    The Journal of infectious diseases , 2015 Apr, 15 : 211(8)1211-8
  • Rossouw TM, Crane J, Frenkel LM
    Ethics of HIV research in children.
    Lancet Infectious Diseases , 2015 : 15633-634
  • Stekler JD, McKernan J, Milne R, Tapia KA, Mykhalchenko K, Holte S, Maenza J, Stevens CE, Buskin SE, Mullins JI, Frenkel LM, Collier AC
    Lack of resistance to integrase inhibitors among antiretroviral-naive subjects with primary HIV-1 infection, 2007-2013.
    Antiviral therapy , 2015 : 20(1)77-80
  • Heffron R, Mugo N, Were E, Kiarie J, Bukusi EA, Mujugira A, Frenkel LM, Donnell D, Ronald A, Celum C, Baeten JM, Partners PrEP Study Team
    Preexposure prophylaxis is efficacious for HIV-1 prevention among women using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate for contraception.
    AIDS (London, England) , 2014 Nov. 28 : 28(18)2771-6
  • van Zyl GU, Frenkel LM, Chung MH, Preiser W, Mellors JW, Nachega JB
    Emerging antiretroviral drug resistance in sub-Saharan Africa: novel affordable technologies are needed to provide resistance testing for individual and public health benefits.
    AIDS (London, England) , 2014 Nov. 28 : 28(18)2643-8
  • Chung MH, Beck IA, Dross S, Tapia K, Kiarie JN, Richardson BA, Overbaugh J, Sakr SR, John-Stewart GC, Frenkel LM
    Oligonucleotide ligation assay detects HIV drug resistance associated with virologic failure among antiretroviral-naive adults in Kenya.
    Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) , 2014 Nov. 1 : 67(3)246-53
  • Baeten JM, Donnell D, Mugo NR, Ndase P, Thomas KK, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kidoguchi L, Coombs RW, Hendrix C, Marzinke MA, Frenkel L, Haberer JE, Bangsberg D, Celum C, Partners PrEP Study Team
    Single-agent tenofovir versus combination emtricitabine plus tenofovir for pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 acquisition: an update of data from a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial.
    The Lancet. Infectious diseases , 2014 Nov. : 14(11)1055-64
  • Dross SE, Rossi SS, Beck IA, Micek MA, Blanco AJ, Seidel KD, Montoya P, Capparelli EV, Frenkel LM
    Variable and suboptimal nevirapine levels in infants given single-dose nevirapine at birth without maternal prophylaxis.
    AIDS , 2014 Oct. 23 : 28(16)2491-3
  • Mutsvangwa J, Beck IA, Gwanzura L, Manhanzva MT, Stranix-Chibanda L, Chipato T, Frenkel LM
    Optimization of the oligonucleotide ligation assay for the detection of nevirapine resistance mutations in Zimbabwean Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 subtype C.
    Journal of Virological Methods , 2014 Sept. 17 : 210C36-39
  • Micek MA, Dross S, Blanco AJ, Beck IA, Matunha L, Seidel K, Montoya P, Matediana E, Gantt S, Gloyd S, Frenkel L
    Transmission of Nevirapine-Resistant HIV Type 1 via Breast Milk to Infants After Single-Dose Nevirapine in Beira, Mozambique.
    The Journal of infectious diseases , 2014 Aug. 15 : 210(4)641-5
  • Beck IA, Deng W, Payant R, Hall R, Bumgarner RE, Mullins JI, Frenkel LM
    Validation of an oligonucleotide ligation assay for quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug-resistant mutants by use of massively parallel sequencing.
    Journal of clinical microbiology , 2014 July : 52(7)2320-7
  • Wagner TA, McLaughlin S, Garg K, Cheung CY, Larsen BB, Styrchak S, Huang HC, Edlefsen PT, Mullins JI, Frenkel LM
    Proliferation of cells with HIV integrated into cancer genes contributes to persistent infection.
    Science (New York, N.Y.) , 2014 July 1 : 345(6196)570-3
  • Mitchell C, Roemer E, Nkwopara E, Robbins B, Cory T, Rue T, Fletcher CV, Frenkel L
    Correlation between Plasma, Intracellular, and Cervical Tissue Levels of Raltegravir at Steady-State Dosing in Healthy Women.
    Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy , 2014 June : 58(6)3360-3365
  • Kantor R, Bettendorf D, Bosch RJ, Mann M, Katzenstein D, Cu-Uvin S, D'Aquila R, Frenkel L, Fiscus S, Coombs R, ACTG A5077 Study Team
    HIV-1 RNA levels and antiretroviral drug resistance in blood and non-blood compartments from HIV-1-infected men and women enrolled in AIDS clinical trials group study A5077.
    PloS one , 2014 Apr, 3 : 9(4)e93537
  • Mitchell C, Dross S, Beck IA, Micek MA, Frenkel LM
    Low Concentrations of HIV-1 DNA at Birth Delays Diagnosis, Complicating Identification of Infants for Antiretroviral Therapy to Potentially Prevent the Establishment of Viral Reservoirs.
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America , 2014 Apr, : 58(8)1190-3
  • Nachman S, Zheng N, Acosta EP, Teppler H, Homony B, Graham B, Fenton T, Xu X, Wenning L, Spector SA, Frenkel LM, Alvero C, Worrell C, Handelsman E, Wiznia A, International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT) P1066 Study Team
    Pharmacokinetics, safety, and 48-week efficacy of oral raltegravir in HIV-1-infected children aged 2 through 18 years.
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America , 2014 Feb. : 58(3)413-22
  • Olson S, Ton Q, Frenkel LM
    HIV Drug Resistance in mothers and infants following use of antiretrovirals to prevent mother-to-child-transmission
    Handbook of Antimicrobial Resistance , 2014 : Matthias Gotte
    SpringerReference.com
  • Larsen BB, Chen L, Maust BS, Kim M, Zhao H, Deng W, Westfall D, Beck I, Frenkel LM, Mullins JI
    Improved Detection of Rare HIV-1 Variants using 454 Pyrosequencing.
    PloS one , 2013 Oct. 2 : 8(10)e76502
  • Ellis GM, Vlaskin TA, Koth A, Vaz LE, Dross SE, Beck IA, Frenkel LM
    Simultaneous and sensitive detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) drug resistant genotypes by multiplex oligonucleotide ligation assay.
    Journal of virological methods , 2013 Sept. : 192(1-2)39-43
  • Jacobson A, Bell F, Lejarcegui N, Mitchell C, Frenkel L, Horton H
    Healthy Neonates Possess a CD56-Negative NK Cell Population with Reduced Anti-Viral Activity.
    PloS one , 2013 June 21 : 8(6)e67700
  • McLaughlin S, Swenson LC, Hu S, Hughes P, Harrigan PR, Coombs RW, Frenkel LM
    Development of a novel codon-specific polymerase chain reaction for the detection of CXCR4-utilizing HIV type 1 subtype B.
    AIDS research and human retroviruses , 2013 May : 29(5)814-25
  • Bull ME, Heath LM, McKernan-Mullin JL, Kraft KM, Acevedo L, Hitti JE, Cohn SE, Tapia KA, Holte SE, Dragavon JA, Coombs RW, Mullins JI, Frenkel LM
    Human immunodeficiency viruses appear compartmentalized to the female genital tract in cross-sectional analyses but genital lineages do not persist over time.
    The Journal of infectious diseases , 2013 Apr, 15 : 207(8)1206-15
  • Ton Q, Frenkel L
    HIV drug resistance in mothers and infants following use of antiretrovirals to prevent mother-to-child transmission.
    Current HIV research , 2013 Mar. : 11(2)126-36
  • Wagner TA, McKernan JL, Tobin NH, Tapia KA, Mullins JI, Frenkel LM
    An increasing proportion of monotypic HIV-1 DNA sequences during antiretroviral treatment suggests proliferation of HIV-infected cells.
    Journal of virology , 2013 Feb. : 87(3)1770-8
  • Mitchell C, Balkus JE, McKernan-Mullin J, Cohn SE, Luque AE, Mwachari C, Cohen CR, Coombs R, Frenkel LM, Hitti J
    Associations between genital tract infections, genital tract inflammation, and cervical cytobrush HIV-1 DNA in US versus Kenyan women.
    Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) , 2013 Feb. 1 : 62(2)143-8
  • Wagner TA, Lin CH, Tobin NH, Côté HC, Sloan DD, Jerome KR, Frenkel LM
    Quantification of mitochondrial toxicity in HIV-infected individuals by quantitative PCR compared to flow cytometry.
    Cytometry. Part B, Clinical cytometry , 2013 Jan. - 2013 Feb. : 84(1)55-8
  • Mitchell C, Balkus JE, Fredricks D, Liu C, McKernan-Mullin J, Frenkel LM, Mwachari C, Luque A, Cohn SE, Cohen CR, Coombs R, Hitti J
    Interaction between lactobacilli, bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria, and HIV Type 1 RNA and DNA Genital shedding in U.S. and Kenyan women.
    AIDS research and human retroviruses , 2013 Jan. : 29(1)13-9
  • Gantt S, Payant R, Carlsson J, Micek MA, Blanco AJ, Beck IA, Matunha L, Montoya P, Matediana E, Gloyd S, Frenkel LM
    Nevirapine-Resistant HIV-1 DNA in Breast Milk After Single-Dose Nevirapine With or Without Zidovudine for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission.
    Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society , 2012 Sept. : 1(3)244-249
  • Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kakia A, Odoyo J, Mucunguzi A, Nakku-Joloba E, Twesigye R, Ngure K, Apaka C, Tamooh H, Gabona F, Mujugira A, Panteleeff D, Thomas KK, Kidoguchi L, Krows M, Revall J, Morrison S, Haugen H, Emmanuel-Ogier M, Ondrejcek L, Coombs RW, Frenkel L, Hendrix C, Bumpus NN, Bangsberg D, Haberer JE, Stevens WS, Lingappa JR, Celum C, Partners PrEP Study Team
    Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women.
    The New England journal of medicine , 2012 Aug. 2 : 367(5)399-410
  • Beck IA, Jang M, McKernan-Mullin J, Bull M, Wagner T, Huang S, Song LY, Nachman S, Krogstad P, Eshleman SH, Wiznia A, Frenkel LM
    Monitoring of HIV type 1 DNA load and drug resistance in peripheral blood mononuclear cells during suppressive antiretroviral therapy does not predict virologic failure.
    AIDS research and human retroviruses , 2012 Aug. : 28(8)780-8
  • Micek MA, Blanco AJ, Carlsson J, Beck IA, Dross S, Matunha L, Seidel K, Montoya P, Gantt S, Matediana E, Jamisse L, Gloyd S, Frenkel LM
    Effects of short-course zidovudine on the selection of nevirapine-resistant HIV-1 in women taking single-dose nevirapine.
    The Journal of infectious diseases , 2012 June 15 : 205(12)1811-5
  • Wagner TA, Frenkel LM
    Yet another reason to treat HIV infection.
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America , 2012 Apr, : 54(7)1010-2
  • Soria J, Bull M, Mitchell C, La Rosa A, Dross S, Kraft K, Coombs R, Ticona E, Frenkel L
    Transmitted HIV resistance to first-line antiretroviral therapy in Lima, Peru.
    AIDS research and human retroviruses , 2012 Apr, : 28(4)333-8
  • Cressey TR, Stek A, Capparelli E, Bowonwatanuwong C, Prommas S, Sirivatanapa P, Yuthavisuthi P, Neungton C, Huo Y, Smith E, Best BM, Mirochnick M, IMPAACT P1026s Team
    Efavirenz pharmacokinetics during the third trimester of pregnancy and postpartum.
    Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) , 2012 Mar. 1 : 59(3)245-52
  • Van Dyke RB, Ngo-Giang-Huong N, Shapiro DE, Frenkel L, Britto P, Roongpisuthipong A, Beck IA, Yuthavisuthi P, Prommas S, Puthanakit T, Achalapong J, Chotivanich N, Rasri W, Cressey TR, Maupin R, Mirochnick M, Jourdain G, IMPAACT P1032 Protocol Team
    A comparison of 3 regimens to prevent nevirapine resistance mutations in HIV-infected pregnant women receiving a single intrapartum dose of nevirapine.
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America , 2012 Jan. 15 : 54(2)285-93
  • Siberry GK, Warshaw MG, Williams PL, Spector SA, Decker MD, Jean-Philippe P, Yogev R, Heckman BE, Manzella A, Roa J, Nachman S, Lujan-Zilbermann J; IMPAACT P1065 Protocol Team (LM Frenkel)
    Safety and immunogenicity of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine in 2- to 10-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-infected children.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal , 2012 Jan. : 31(1)47-52
  • Ellis GM, Huang S, Hitti J, Frenkel LM, for the P1022 Study Team
    Selection of HIV Resistance Associated With Antiretroviral Therapy Initiated Due to Pregnancy and Suspended Postpartum.
    Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) , 2011 Nov. 1 : 58(3)241-247
  • Kimberlin DW, Whitley RJ, Wan W, Powell DA, Storch G, Ahmed A, Palmer A, Sánchez PJ, Jacobs RF, Bradley JS, Robinson JL, Shelton M, Dennehy PH, Leach C, Rathore M, Abughali N, Wright P, Frenkel LM, Brady RC, Van Dyke R, Weiner LB, Guzman-Cottrill J, McCarthy CA, Griffin J, Jester P, Parker M, Lakeman FD, Kuo H, Lee CH, Cloud GA, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Collaborative Antiviral Study Group
    Oral acyclovir suppression and neurodevelopment after neonatal herpes.
    The New England journal of medicine , 2011 Oct. 6 : 365(14)1284-92
  • Dorton BJ, Mulindwa J, Li MS, Chintu NT, Chibwesha CJ, Mbewe F, Frenkel LM, Stringer JS, Chi BH
    CD4+ cell count and risk for antiretroviral drug resistance among women using peripartum nevirapine for perinatal HIV prevention.
    BJOG , 2011 Mar. : 118(4)495-9
  • Stekler JD, Ellis GM, Carlsson J, Eilers B, Holte S, Maenza J, Stevens CE, Collier AC, Frenkel LM
    Prevalence and impact of minority variant drug resistance mutations in primary HIV-1 infection.
    PloS one , 2011 : 6(12)e28952
  • Sha BE, Tierney C, Cohn SE, Sun X, Coombs RW, Frenkel LM, Kalams SA, Aweeka FT, Bastow B, Bardeguez A, Kmack A, Stek A, Aids Clinical Trials Group ACTG A5150 Team
    Postpartum viral load rebound in HIV-1-infected women treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol A5150.
    HIV clinical trials , 2011 Jan. - 2011 Feb. : 12(1)9-23
  • Baeten JM, Lingappa J, Beck I, Frenkel LM, Pepper G, Celum C, Wald A, Fife KH, Were E, Mugo N, Sanchez J, Essex M, Makhema J, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, Corey L
    Herpes simplex virus type 2 suppressive therapy with acyclovir or valacyclovir does not select for specific HIV-1 resistance in HIV-1/HSV-2 dually infected persons.
    The Journal of infectious diseases , 2011 Jan. 1 : 203(1)117-21
  • Wagner TA, Frenkel LM
    Antiretroviral treatment for HIV-infected infants exposed to nevirapine.
    JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association , 2010 Dec. 15 : 304(23)2589; author reply 2589-90
  • Nett RJ, Bartschi JL, Ellis GM, Hachey DM, Frenkel LM, Roscoe JC, Carter KK, Hahn CG
    Two clusters of HIV-1 infection, rural Idaho, USA, 2008.
    Emerging infectious diseases , 2010 Nov. : 16(11)1807-9
  • Levin MJ, Moscicki AB, Song LY, Fenton T, Meyer WA 3rd, Read JS, Handelsman EL, Nowak B, Sattler CA, Saah A, Radley DR, Esser MT, Weinberg A; IMPAACT P1047 Protocol Team (LM Frenkel, investigator)
    Safety and immunogenicity of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) vaccine in HIV-infected children 7 to 12 years old.
    Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes , 2010 Oct. : 55(2)197-204
  • Gantt S, Carlsson J, Heath L, Bull ME, Shetty AK, Mutsvangwa J, Musingwini G, Woelk G, Zijenah LS, Katzenstein DA, Mullins JI, Frenkel LM
    Genetic analyses of HIV-1 env sequences demonstrate limited compartmentalization in breast milk and suggest viral replication within the breast that increases with mastitis.
    Journal of virology , 2010 Oct. : 10812-9
  • Heath L, Frenkel LM, Foley BT, Mullins JI
    Comment on "The origins of sexually transmitted HIV among men who have sex with men".
    Science translational medicine , 2010 Sept. : 50le1; author reply 50lr1
  • Serchuck LK, Williams PL, Nachman S, Gadow KD, Chernoff M, Schwartz L; IMPAACT 1055 Team (LM Frenkel, investigator)
    Prevalence of pain and association with psychiatric symptom severity in perinatally HIV-infected children as compared to controls living in HIV-affected households.
    AIDS Care , 2010 May : 22(5)640-8
  • Siberry GK, Williams PL, Lujan-Zilbermann J, Warshaw MG, Spector SA, Decker MD, Heckman BE, Demske EF, Read JS, Jean-Philippe P, Kabat W, Nachman S; IMPAACT P1065 Protocol Team (investigator, LM Frenkel)
    Phase I/II, open-label trial of safety and immunogenicity of meningococcal (groups A, C, Y, and W-135) polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adolescents.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease journal , 2010 May : 29(5)391-6
  • Wagner TA, Kress CM, Beck I, Techapornroong M5, Wittayapraparat P, Tansuphasawasdikul S, Jourdain G, Ngo-Giang-Huong N, Lallemant M, Frenkel LM
    Detection of HIV-1 drug resistance in women following administration of a single dose of nevirapine: comparison of plasma RNA to cellular DNA by consensus sequencing and by oligonucleotide ligation assay.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology , 2010 May : 48(5)1555-61
  • Jourdain G, Wagner TA, Ngo-Giang-Huong N, Sirirungsi W, Klinbuayaem V, Fregonese F, Nantasen I, Techapornroong M, Halue G, Nilmanat A, Wittayapraparat P, Chalermpolprapa V, Pathipvanich P, Yuthavisuthi P, Frenkel LM, Lallemant M
    Association between detection of HIV-1 DNA resistance mutations by a sensitive assay at initiation of antiretroviral therapy and virologic failure.
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America , 2010 May : 1397-404
  • Micek MA, Blanco AJ, Beck IA, Dross S, Matunha L, Montoya P, Seidel K, Gantt S, Matediane E, Jamisse L, Gloyd S, Frenkel LM
    Nevirapine resistance by timing of HIV type 1 infection in infants treated with single-dose nevirapine.
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America , 2010 May : 1405-14
  • Lallemant M, Ngo-Giang-Huong N, Jourdain G, Traisaithit P, Cressey TR, Collins IJ, Jarupanich T, Sukhumanant T, Achalapong J, Sabsanong P, Chotivanich N, Winiyakul N, Ariyadej S, Kanjanasing A, Ratanakosol J, Hemvuttiphan J, Kengsakul K, Wannapira W, Sittipiyasakul V, Pornkitprasarn W, Liampongsabuddhi P, McIntosh K, Van Dyke RB, Frenkel LM, Koetsawang S, Le Coeur S, Kanchana S
    Efficacy and safety of 1-month postpartum zidovudine-didanosine to prevent HIV-resistance mutations after intrapartum single-dose nevirapine.
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America , 2010 Mar. : 898-908
  • Mitchell C, Kraft K, Peterson D, Frenkel L
    Cross-contamination during processing of dried blood spots used for rapid diagnosis of HIV-1 infection of infants is rare and avoidable.
    Journal of virological methods , 2010 Feb. : 163(2)489-91
  • Sheiko M, Soma V, Moss N, Frenkel L
    Case of concurrent Influenza A and Kawasaki Disease.
    Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases , 2010 : 5(2)211-213
  • Chi BH, Ellis GM, Chintu N, Cantrell RA, Sinkala M, Aldrovandi GM, Warrier R, Mbewe F, Nakamura K, Stringer EM, Frenkel LM, Stringer JS
    Intrapartum tenofovir and emtricitabine reduces low-concentration drug resistance selected by single-dose nevirapine for perinatal HIV prevention.
    AIDS research and human retroviruses , 2009 Nov. : 1099-106
  • Bull M, Learn G, Genowati I, McKernan J, Hitti J, Lockhart D, Tapia K, Holte S, Dragavon J, Coombs R, Mullins J, Frenkel L
    Compartmentalization of HIV-1 within the female genital tract is due to monotypic and low-diversity variants not distinct viral populations.
    PloS one , 2009 Sept. 22 : 4(9)e7122
  • Weinberg A, Huang S, Fenton T, Patterson-Bartlett J, Gona P, Read JS, Dankner WM, Nachman S
    Virologic and immunologic correlates with the magnitude of antibody responses to the hepatitis A vaccine in HIV-infected children on highly active antiretroviral treatment.
    Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) , 2009 Sept. : 17-24
  • Winter HS, Oleske JM, Hughes MD, McKinney RE Jr, Elgie C, Powell C, Purdue L, Puga AM, Jimenez E, Scott GB, Cruz ML, Moye J Jr; Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 247 Study Team (LM Frenkel, investigator)
    Randomized controlled trial of feeding a concentrated formula to infants born to women infected by human immunodeficiency virus.
    Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition , 2009 Aug. : 49(2)222-32
  • Chernoff M, Nachman S, Williams P, Brouwers P, Heston J, Hodge J, Di Poalo V, Deygoo NS, Gadow KD, IMPAACT P1055 Study Team
    Mental health treatment patterns in perinatally HIV-infected youth and controls.
    Pediatrics , 2009 Aug. : 124(2)627-36
  • Ellis GM, Page LC, Burman BE, Buskin S, Frenkel LM
    Increased detection of HIV-1 drug resistance at time of diagnosis by testing viral DNA with a sensitive assay.
    Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) , 2009 July : 283-9
  • Bull ME, Learn GH, McElhone S, Hitti J, Lockhart D, Holte S, Dragavon J, Coombs RW, Mullins JI, Frenkel LM
    Monotypic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genotypes across the uterine cervix and in blood suggest proliferation of cells with provirus.
    Journal of virology , 2009 June : 83(12)6020-8
  • Cressey TR, Van Dyke R, Jourdain G, Puthanakit T, Roongpisuthipong A, Achalapong J, Yuthavisuthi P, Prommas S, Chotivanich N, Maupin R, Smith E, Shapiro DE, Mirochnick M, IMPAACT P1032 Team
    Early postpartum pharmacokinetics of lopinavir initiated intrapartum in Thai women.
    Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy , 2009 May : 53(5)2189-91
  • Lin CH, Sloan DD, Dang CH, Wagner T, Cabrera AJ, Tobin NH, Frenkel LM, Jerome KR
    Assessment of mitochondrial toxicity by analysis of mitochondrial protein expression in mononuclear cells.
    Cytometry. Part B, Clinical cytometry , 2009 May : 76(3)181-90
  • Wagner TA, Tobin NH, McKernan JL, Xu M, Melvin AJ, Mohan KM, Learn GH, Mullins JI, Frenkel LM
    Increased mutations in Env and Pol suggest greater HIV-1 replication in sputum-derived viruses compared with blood-derived viruses.
    AIDS (London, England) , 2009 May : 923-8
  • Frenkel LM
    Dientamoeba fragilis
    Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases , 2009 : 6th ed W.B. Saunders Co, Philadelphia, PA(Feigin RD, Cherry JD)
  • Wagner TA, Frenkel LM
    Potential limitation of CCR5 antagonists: drug resistance more often linked to CXCR4-utilizing than to CCR5-utilizing HIV-1.
    AIDS (London, England) , 2008 Nov. 12 : 22(17)2393-5
  • Buskin SE, Ellis GM, Pepper GG, Frenkel LM, Pergam SA, Gottlieb GS, Horwitch C, Olliffe JF, Johnson K, Shalit P, Heinen C, Schwartz M, Wood RW
    Transmission cluster of multiclass highly drug-resistant HIV-1 among 9 men who have sex with men in Seattle/King County, WA, 2005-2007.
    Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) , 2008 Oct. 1 : 49(2)205-11
  • Mitchell C, Jennings C, Brambilla D, Aldrovandi G, Amedee AM, Beck I, Bremer JW, Coombs R, Decker D, Fiscus S, Fitzgibbon J, Luzuriaga K, Moye J, Palumbo P, Reichelderfer P, Somasundaran M, Stevens W, Frenkel L, Dried Blood Spot Working Group of the Infant Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Network
    Diminished human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA yield from dried blood spots after storage in a humid incubator at 37 degrees C compared to -20 degrees C.
    Journal of clinical microbiology , 2008 Sept. : 46(9)2945-9
  • Hare CB, Mellors J, Krambrink A, Su Z, Skiest D, Margolis DM, Patel SS, Barnas D, Frenkel L, Coombs RW, Aweeka F, Morse GD, Haas DW, Boltz V, Palmer S, Coffin J, Havlir DV
    Detection of nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor-resistant HIV-1 after discontinuation of virologically suppressive antiretroviral therapy.
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America , 2008 Aug. 1 : 47(3)421-4
  • Beck IA, Crowell C, Kittoe R, Bredell H, Machaba M, Willamson C, Janssens W, Jallow S, van der Groen G, Shao Y, Jacob M, Samuel NM, de Rivera IL, Ngo-Giang-Huong N, Cassol S, Alemnji G, Frenkel LM
    Optimization of the oligonucleotide ligation assay, a rapid and inexpensive test for detection of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations, for non-North American variants.
    Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) , 2008 Aug. 1 : 48(4)418-27
  • Gantt S, Carlsson J, Shetty AK, Seidel KD, Qin X, Mutsvangwa J, Musingwini G, Woelk G, Zijenah LS, Katzenstein DA, Frenkel LM
    Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus in breast milk are associated with HIV-1 shedding but not with mastitis.
    AIDS (London, England) , 2008 July 31 : 22(12)1453-60
  • Borkowsky W, Yogev R, Muresan P, McFarland E, Frenkel L, Fenton T, Capparelli E, Moye J, Harding P, Ellis N, Heckman B, Kraimer J
    Structured treatment interruptions (STIs) in HIV-1 infected pediatric populations increases interferon gamma production and reduces viremia.
    Vaccine , 2008 June 6 : 26(24)3086-9
  • Borkowsky W, Yogev R, Muresan P, McFarland E, Frenkel L, Fenton T, Capparelli E, Moye J, Harding P, Ellis N, Heckman B, Kraimer J
    Planned multiple exposures to autologous virus in HIV type 1-infected pediatric populations increases HIV-specific immunity and reduces HIV viremia.
    AIDS research and human retroviruses , 2008 Mar. : 24(3)401-11
  • de Oliveira CF, Diaz RS, Harmache A, Frenkel LM, Gupta P, Learn GH, Mullins JI, Busch MP
    Passive transfer of HIV-1 antibodies and drug resistant virus during a health care worker accident: implications for HCW post-exposure management.
    American Journal of Infectious Diseases , 2008 : 4244-256
  • Gantt S, Shetty AK, Seidel KD, Matasa K, Musingwini G, Woelk G, Zijenah LS, Katzenstein DA, Frenkel LM
    Laboratory indicators of mastitis are not associated with elevated HIV-1 DNA loads or predictive of HIV-1 RNA loads in breast milk.
    The Journal of infectious diseases , 2007 Aug. 15 : 196(4)570-6
  • Bull ME, Learn GH, Mullins JI, Frenkel LM
    Methods used to examine compartmentalization of viral populations between the genital tract and peripheral blood.
    The Journal of infectious diseases , 2007 Aug. 1 : 196(3)493-4; author reply 494-5
  • Gupta D, Lhewa D, Viswanath R, Jacob SM, Parameshwari S, Radhakrishnan R, Seidel K, Frenkel LM, Samuel NM, Melvin AJ
    Effectiveness of antenatal group HIV voluntary counseling and testing services in rural India.
    AIDS education and prevention : official publication of the International Society for AIDS Education , 2007 June : 19(3)187-97
  • Zunt JR, Montano SM, Beck I, Alarcon JO, Frenkel LM, Bautista CT, Price R, Longstreth WT
    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis: viral load and muscle tone are correlated.
    Journal of Neurovirology , 2006 Dec. : 12(6)466-71
  • Zerr DM, Frenkel LM, Huang ML, Rhoads M, Nguy L, Del Beccaro MA, Corey L
    Polymerase chain reaction diagnosis of primary human herpesvirus-6 infection in the acute care setting.
    The Journal of pediatrics , 2006 Oct. : 149(4)480-5
  • Frenkel LM, McKernan J, Dinh PV, Goldman D, Hitti J, Watts DH, Cooper ER, Dragavon J, Coombs RW
    HIV type 1 zidovudine (ZDV) resistance in blood and uterine cervical secretions of pregnant women.
    AIDS research and human retroviruses , 2006 Sept. : 22(9)870-3
  • Halvas EK, Aldrovandi GM, Balfe P, Beck IA, Boltz VF, Coffin JM, Frenkel LM, Hazelwood JD, Johnson VA, Kearney M, Kovacs A, Kuritzkes DR, Metzner KJ, Nissley DV, Nowicki M, Palmer S, Ziermann R, Zhao RY, Jennings CL, Bremer J, Brambilla D, Mellors JW
    Blinded, multicenter comparison of methods to detect a drug-resistant mutant of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 at low frequency.
    Journal of clinical microbiology , 2006 July : 44(7)2612-4
  • Holte SE, Melvin AJ, Mullins JI, Tobin NH, Frenkel LM
    Density-dependent decay in HIV-1 dynamics.
    Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) , 2006 Mar. : 41(3)266-76
  • Gantt S, Frenkel LM
    Antivirals
    Current Pediatric Therapy 18/e , 2006 : Burg FD, Ingelfinger JR, Polin RA and Gershon A(Elsevier Co, Philadelphia, PA)
  • Wagner TA, Frenkel LM
    Clinical Significance of HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations.
    Lab Med , 2006 : 37554-61
  • Huang DD, Bremer JW, Brambilla DJ, Palumbo PE, Aldrovandi G, Eshleman S, Brown C, Fiscus S, Frenkel L, Hamdan H, Hart S, Kovacs A, Krogstad P, LaRussa P, Sullivan J, Weinberg A, Zhao YQ, Pediatric ACTG Sequencing Working Group
    Model for assessment of proficiency of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 sequencing-based genotypic antiretroviral assays.
    Journal of clinical microbiology , 2005 Aug. : 43(8)3963-70
  • Tobin NH, Learn GH, Holte SE, Wang Y, Melvin AJ, McKernan JL, Pawluk DM, Mohan KM, Lewis PF, Mullins JI, Frenkel LM
    Evidence that low-level viremias during effective highly active antiretroviral therapy result from two processes: expression of archival virus and replication of virus.
    Journal of virology , 2005 Aug. : 79(15)9625-34
  • Li CC, Seidel KD, Coombs RW, Frenkel LM
    Detection and quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 p24 antigen in dried whole blood and plasma on filter paper stored under various conditions.
    Journal of clinical microbiology , 2005 Aug. : 43(8)3901-5
  • Kovacs A, Montepiedra G, Carey V, Pahwa S, Weinberg A, Frenkel L, Capparelli E, Mofenson L, Smith E, McIntosh K, Burchett SK, Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 366 Study Team
    Immune reconstitution after receipt of highly active antiretroviral therapy in children with advanced or progressive HIV disease and complete or partial viral load response.
    The Journal of infectious diseases , 2005 July 15 : 192(2)296-302
  • Frenkel LM
    Challenges in the diagnosis and management of neonatal herpes simplex virus encephalitis.
    Pediatrics , 2005 Mar. : 115(3)795-7
  • Zerr DM, Meier AS, Selke SS, Frenkel LM, Huang ML, Wald A, Rhoads MP, Nguy L, Bornemann R, Morrow RA, Corey L
    A population-based study of primary human herpesvirus 6 infection.
    The New England journal of medicine , 2005 Feb. 24 : 352(8)768-76
  • Tobin NH, Frenkel LM
    HIV-1 Drug resistance in pregnant women and their infants
    Treatment of Drug-Resistant HIV-1 , 2005 : Kuritzkes DR(Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY, NY)
  • Wade NA, Unadkat JD, Huang S, Shapiro DE, Mathias A, Yasin S, Ciupak G, Watts DH, Delke I, Rathore M, Hitti J, Frenkel L, Samelson R, Smith ME, Mofenson L, Burchett SK
    Pharmacokinetics and safety of stavudine in HIV-infected pregnant women and their infants: Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 332.
    The Journal of infectious diseases , 2004 Dec. 15 : 190(12)2167-74
  • Melvin AJ, Alarcon J, Velasquez C, Rodriguez C, Piscoya J, Giraldo A, Dinh P, Frenkel LM
    Rapid HIV type 1 testing of women presenting in late pregnancy with unknown HIV status in Lima, Peru.
    AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses , 2004 Oct. : 20(10)1046-52
  • Ellis GM, Mahalanabis M, Beck IA, Pepper G, Wright A, Hamilton S, Holte S, Naugler WE, Pawluk DM, Li CC, Frenkel LM
    Comparison of oligonucleotide ligation assay and consensus sequencing for detection of drug-resistant mutants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma.
    Journal of clinical microbiology , 2004 Aug. : 42(8)3670-4
  • Li CC, Beck IA, Seidel KD, Frenkel LM
    Persistence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype B DNA in dried-blood samples on FTA filter paper.
    Journal of clinical microbiology , 2004 Aug. : 42(8)3847-9
  • Hitti J, Frenkel LM, Stek AM, Nachman SA, Baker D, Gonzalez-Garcia A, Provisor A, Thorpe EM, Paul ME, Foca M, Gandia J, Huang S, Wei LJ, Stevens LM, Watts DH, McNamara J
    Maternal toxicity with continuous nevirapine in pregnancy: results from PACTG 1022.
    Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) , 2004 July 1 : 36(3)772-6
  • Dybul M, Nies-Kraske E, Dewar R, Maldarelli F, Hallahan CW, Daucher M, Piscitelli SC, Ehler L, Weigand A, Palmer S, Metcalf JA, Davey RT, Rock Kress DM, Powers A, Beck I, Frenkel L, Baseler M, Coffin J, Fauci AS
    A proof-of-concept study of short-cycle intermittent antiretroviral therapy with a once-daily regimen of didanosine, lamivudine, and efavirenz for the treatment of chronic HIV infection.
    The Journal of infectious diseases , 2004 June 1 : 189(11)1974-82
  • Frenkel LM, Tobin NH
    Understanding HIV-1 drug resistance.
    Therapeutic drug monitoring , 2004 Apr, : 26(2)116-21
  • Carey VJ, Yong FH, Frenkel LM, McKinney RM
    Growth velocity assessment in paediatric AIDS: smoothing, penalized quantile regression and the definition of growth failure.
    Statistics in Medicine , 2004 Feb. 15 : 23(3)509-26
  • Frenkel LM
    Dientamoeba fragilis
    Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases , 2004 : 5th ed W.B. Saunders Co, Philadelphia, PA(Feigin RD, Cherry JD)
  • Nickle DC, Shriner D, Mittler JE, Frenkel LM, Mullins JI
    Importance and detection of virus reservoirs and compartments of HIV infection.
    Current opinion in microbiology , 2003 Aug. : 6(4)410-6
  • Ioannidis JP, Contopoulos-Ioannidis DG, Rosenberg PS, Goedert JJ, De Rossi A, Espanol T, Frenkel L, Mayaux MJ, Newell ML, Pahwa SG, Rousseau C, Scarlatti G, Sei S, Sen L, O'Brien TR, HIV Host Genetics International Meta-Analysis Group
    Effects of CCR5-delta32 and CCR2-64I alleles on disease progression of perinatally HIV-1-infected children: an international meta-analysis.
    AIDS (London, England) , 2003 July 25 : 17(11)1631-8
  • Nickle DC, Jensen MA, Shriner D, Brodie SJ, Frenkel LM, Mittler JE, Mullins JI
    Evolutionary indicators of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reservoirs and compartments.
    Journal of virology , 2003 May : 77(9)5540-6
  • Frenkel LM, Wang Y, Learn GH, McKernan JL, Ellis GM, Mohan KM, Holte SE, De Vange SM, Pawluk DM, Melvin AJ, Lewis PF, Heath LM, Beck IA, Mahalanabis M, Naugler WE, Tobin NH, Mullins JI
    Multiple viral genetic analyses detect low-level human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication during effective highly active antiretroviral therapy.
    Journal of virology , 2003 May : 77(10)5721-30
  • Bardeguez AD, Shapiro DE, Mofenson LM, Coombs R, Frenkel LM, Fowler MG, Huang S, Sperling RS, Cunningham B, Gandia J, Maupin R, Zorrilla CD, Jones T, O'Sullivan MJ
    Effect of cessation of zidovudine prophylaxis to reduce vertical transmission on maternal HIV disease progression and survival.
    Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) , 2003 Feb. 1 : 32(2)170-81
  • Tobin NH, Frenkel LM
    Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment (HAART) of Pediatric HIV-1 Infection
    De Clercq/Vandamme (eds.): Combination Therapy of AIDS , 2003 : Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, Switzerland
  • Frenkel LM
    New Developments in HIV Testing
    Virologic Views. University of Washington Community Services , 2003 : 25(Nichols, WG)
  • Frenkel LM
    Cytomegalovirus infections
    Gellis and Kagan’s Current Pediatric Therapy 17 , 2003 : Burg FD, Wald ER, Ingelfinger JR and Polin RA(WB Saunders Co, Philadelphia, PA)
  • Tobin NH, Frenkel LM
    Human immunodeficiency virus drug susceptibility and resistance testing.
    The Pediatric infectious disease journal , 2002 July : 21(7)681-3
  • Melvin AJ, Lewis PF, Mohan KM, Naugler WS, Frenkel LM
    Efficacy and toxicity of antiretroviral therapy using 4 or more agents: application of a strategy for antiretroviral management in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children.
    Archives of pediatrics and adolescent medicine , 2002 June : 156(6)568-73
  • Beck IA, Mahalanabis M, Pepper G, Wright A, Hamilton S, Langston E, Frenkel LM
    Rapid and sensitive oligonucleotide ligation assay for detection of mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 associated with high-level resistance to protease inhibitors.
    Journal of clinical microbiology , 2002 Apr, : 40(4)1413-9
  • Zerr DM, Yeung LC, Obrigewitch RM, Huang ML, Frenkel LM, Corey L
    Case report: primary human herpesvirus-6 associated with an afebrile seizure in a 3-week-old infant.
    Journal of medical virology , 2002 Mar. : 66(3)384-7
  • Naugler WE, Yong FH, Carey VJ, Dragavon JA, Coombs RW, Frenkel LM
    T69D/N pol mutation, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA levels, and syncytium-inducing phenotype are associated with CD4 cell depletion during didanosine therapy.
    The Journal of infectious diseases , 2002 Feb. 15 : 185(4)448-55
  • McFarland EJ, Borkowsky W, Fenton T, Wara D, McNamara J, Samson P, Kang M, Mofenson L, Cunningham C, Duliege AM, Sinangil F, Spector SA, Jimenez E, Bryson Y, Burchett S, Frenkel LM, Yogev R, Gigliotti F, Luzuriaga K, Livingston RA
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120-specific antibodies in neonates receiving an HIV-1 recombinant gp120 vaccine.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases , 2001 Nov. 15 : 184(10)1331-5
  • Villahermosa ML, Beck I, Perez-Alvarez L, Frenkel LM, Najara R
    Detection and quantification of multiple drug resistance mutations in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase by an oligonucleotide ligation assay.
    Journal of Human Virology , 2001 Sept. - 2001 Oct. : 4(5)238-48
  • Kimberlin DW, Lin CY, Jacobs RF, Powell DA, Frenkel LM, Gruber WC, Rathore M, Bradley JS, Diaz PS, Kumar M, Arvin AM, Gutierrez K, Shelton M, Weiner LB, Sleasman JW, de Sierra TM, Soong SJ, Kiell J, Lakeman FD, Whitley RJ and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease Collaborative Antiviral Study Group
    Natural history of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections in the acyclovir era.
    Pediatrics , 2001 Aug. : 108(2)223-9
  • Kimberlin DW, Lin CY, Jacobs RF, Powell DA, Corey L, Gruber WC, Rathore M, Bradley JS, Diaz PS, Kumar M, Arvin AM, Gutierrez K, Shelton M, Weiner LB, Sleasman JW, de Sierra TM, Weller S, Soong SJ, Kiell J, Lakeman FD, Whitley RJ and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease Collaborative Antiviral Study Group (Frenkel, LM)
    Safety and efficacy of high-dose intravenous acyclovir in the management of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections.
    Pediatrics , 2001 Aug. : 108(2)230-8
  • Frenkel LM, Mullins JI
    Should patients with drug-resistant HIV-1 continue to receive antiretroviral therapy?
    The New England Journal of Medicine , 2001 Feb. 15 : 344(7)520-2
  • Beck IA, Drennan KD, Melvin AJ, Mohan KM, Hertz AM, Alarcón J, Piscoya J, Velázquez C, Frenkel LM
    Simple, sensitive, and specific detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype B DNA in dried blood samples for diagnosis in infants in the field.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology , 2001 Jan. : 39(1)29-33
  • Dankner WM, Lindsey JC, Levin MJ
    Correlates of opportunistic infections in children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus managed before highly active antiretroviral therapy.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal , 2001 Jan. : 20(1)40-8
  • Frenkel LM, Capparelli EV, Dankner WM, Xu J, Smith IL, Spector SA, Ballow A, Culnane M, Read JS, Thompson M, Mohan KM, Shaver A, Robinson CA, Stempien MJ, Burchett SK, Melvin AJ, Borkowsky W, Petru A, Kovacs A, Yogev R, Goldsmith J, McFarland E, for the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group
    Oral ganciclovir in children: pharmacokinetics, safety, tolerance, and antiviral effects. The Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases , 2000 Dec. : 182(6)1616-24
  • Zerr DM, Huang ML, Corey L, Erickson M, Parker HL, Frenkel LM
    Sensitive method for detection of human herpesviruses 6 and 7 in saliva collected in field studies.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology , 2000 May : 38(5)1981-3
  • Stevens RC, Rodman JH, Yong FH, Carey V, Knupp CA, Frenkel LM
    Effect of food and pharmacokinetic variability on didanosine systemic exposure in HIV-infected children. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 144 Study Team.
    AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses , 2000 Mar. 20 : 16(5)415-21
  • Borkowsky W, Wara D, Fenton T, McNamara J, Kang M, Mofenson L, McFarland E, Cunningham C, Duliege AM, Francis D, Bryson Y, McIntosh D, Spector S, Frenkel LM, Starr S, Van Dyke R, Jimenez E, ACTG 230 collaborators
    Lymphoproliferative responses to recombinant HIV-1 envelope antigens in neonates and infants receiving gp120 vaccines. AIDS Clinical Trial Group 230 Collaborators.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases , 2000 Mar. : 181(3)890-6
  • Melvin AJ, Frenkel LM
    Pediatric HIV-1 Disease: update in perinatal transmission and treatment.
    AIDS Clinical Review 2000 , 2000 : Volberding PA, Jacobson MA63-83
  • Mirochnick M, Cooper E, McIntosh K, Xu J, Lindsey J, Jacobus D, Mofenson L, Sullivan JA, Dankner W, Frenkel LM, S Nachman, Wara DW, Johnson D, Bonagura VR, Rathore MH, Cunningham CK, McNamara J
    Pharmacokinetics of dapsone administered daily and weekly in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy , 1999 Nov. : 43(11)2586-91
  • McSherry GD, Shapiro DE, Coombs RW, McGrath N, Frenkel LM, Britto P, Culnane M, Sperling RS
    The effects of zidovudine in the subset of infants infected with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 076).
    The Journal of Pediatrics , 1999 June : 134(6)717-24
  • Diamond C, Mohan K, Hobson A, Frenkel LM, Corey L
    Viremia in neonatal herpes simplex virus infections.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal , 1999 June : 18(6)487-9
  • Melvin AJ, Rodrigo AG, Mohan KM, Lewis PA, Manns-Arcuino LA, Coombs RW, Mullins JI, Frenkel LM
    HIV-1 dynamics in children.
    Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology: Official Publication of the International Retrovirology of Association , 1999 Apr, 15 : 20(5)468-73
  • Stiehm ER, Lambert JS, Mofenson LM, Bethel J, Whitehouse J, Nugent R, Moye J Jr, Fowler MG, Mathieson BJ, Reichelderfer P, Nemo GJ, Korelitz J, Meyer WA III, Sapan CV, Jimenez E, Gandia J, Scott G, O’Sullivan, MJ, Kovacs A, Stek A, Shearer WT, Hammill H, Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 185 Team (Frenkel LM)
    Efficacy of zidovudine and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) hyperimmune immunoglobulin for reducing perinatal HIV transmission from HIV-infected women with advanced disease: results of Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 185.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases , 1999 Mar. : 179(3)567-75
  • Zerr DM, Frenkel LM
    Advances in antiviral therapy
    Current Opinion in Pediatrics , 1999 : 1121-27
  • Frenkel LM, Melvin AJ
    Pediatric HIV-1 infection: updates on prevention and management
    Medical Postgraduates (Japanese) , 1999 : 3762-72
  • Stevens RC, Frenkel LM, and Rodman JH for the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trial Group and Protocol 144 team.
    Influence of Age and Food on Didanosine Pharmacokinetics In HIV Infected Children.
    Pharmacotherapy , 1999 : 19487
  • Lee, M-J, Hallmark RJ, Frenkel LM, Del Priore G
    Maternal syphilis and vertical perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection.
    International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics , 1998 Dec. : 63(3)247-52
  • McKinney RE, Johnson GM, Stanley K, Yong FH, Keller A, O’Donnell KJ, Brouwers P, Mitchell WG, Yoger R, Wara DW, Wiznia A, Moferson L, McNamara J, Spector SA. The Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Protocol 300 Study Team (Frenkel LM)
    A randomized study of combined zidovudine-lamivudine versus didanosine monotherapy in children with symptomatic therapy-naive HIV-1 infection. The Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 300 Study Team.
    The Journal of Pediatrics , 1998 Oct. : 133(4)500-8
  • Working Group on Antiretroviral Therapy and Medical Management of Infants, Children, and Adolescents with HIV Infection (Frenkel LM)
    Antiretroviral therapy and medical management of pediatric HIV infection and 1997 USPHS/IDSA report on the prevention of opportunistic infections in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus.
    Pediatrics , 1998 Oct. : 102(4 pt 2)999-1085
  • Sperling RS, Shapiro DE, McSherry GD, Britto P, Cunningham BE, Culnane M, Coombs RW, Scott G, Van Dyke RB, Shearer WT, Jimenez E, Diaz C, Harrison DD, Delfraissy JF, for the PACTG (Frenkel LM)
    Safety of the maternal-infant zidovudine regimen utilized in the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trial Group 076 Study.
    AIDS , 1998 Oct. 1 : 12(14)1805-13
  • Carey VJ, Yong FH, Frenkel LM, McKinney RE Jr.
    Pediatric AIDS prognosis using somatic growth velocity.
    AIDS , 1998 July 30 : 12(11)1361-9
  • Frenkel LM, Mullins JL, Learn GH, Manns Arcuino LA, Herring BL, Kalish ML, Steketee RW, Thea DM, Nichols JE, Liu S-L, Harmache A, He X, Muthui D, Madan A, Hood L, Haase AT, Zupancic M, Staskus K, Wolinsky S, Krogstad P, Zhao JQ, Chen I, Koup R, Ho D, Korber B, Apple RJ, Coombs RW, Pahwa S, Roberts NB Jr
    Genetic evaluation of suspected cases of transient HIV-1 infection of infants.
    Science , 1998 May 15 : 280(5366)1073-7
  • Eastman PS, Shapiro DE, Coombs RW, Frenkel LM, McSherry GD, Britto P, Herman SA, Sperling RS, for the Pediatric ACTG Protocol 076 Study Group
    Maternal viral genotypic zidovudine resistance and infrequent failure of zidovudine therapy to prevent perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 076.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases , 1998 Mar. : 177(3)557-64
  • Edelstein RE, Nickerson DA, Tobe VO, Manns Arcuino LA, Frenkel LM
    Oligonucleotide ligation assay for detecting mutations in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 pol gene that are associated with resistance to zidovudine, didanosine, and lamivudine.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology , 1998 Feb. : 36(2)569-72
  • Sanchez S, Frenkel LM
    Transmission vertical del VIH- de madre a hijo
    Medica en Red. Lima, Peru , 1998 : 26-29
  • Members of the Working Group on Antiretroviral Therapy and Medical Management of HIV-Infected Children (Frenkel LM)
    Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection
    MMWR 47 , 1998 : No RR-4
  • Wald A, Frenkel LM, Benjamin D, Christie D
    Cytomegalovirus gastropathy in a child: resolution after ganciclovir therapy.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases , 1998 Jan. : 26(1)199-200
  • Edelstein RE, Manns Arcuino LA, Hughes JP, Melvin AJ, Mohan KM, King PD, McLellan CL, Murante BL, Kassman BP, Frenkel LM
    Risk of mother-to-infant transmission of HIV-1 is not reduced in CCR5/delta32ccr5 heterozygotes.
    Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology: Official Publication of the International Retrovirology of Association , 1997 Dec. 1 : 16(4)243-6
  • Frenkel LM, Melvin AJ
    Issues regarding antiretroviral treatment for patients with HIV-1 infection.
    JAMA , 1997 Oct. 15 : 278(15)1234; author reply 1235
  • Melvin AJ, Mohan KM, Manns Arcuino LA, Edelstein RE, Frenkel LM
    Clinical, virologic and immunologic responses of children with advanced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 disease treated with protease inhibitors.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal , 1997 Oct. : 16(10)968-74
  • Charbonneau TT, Wade NA, Weiner L, Omene J, Frenkel LM, Wethers JA, Arpadi S, Bamji M, Frey HM, Gupta A, Conroy JM
    Vertical transmission of HIV in New York State: a basis for statewide testing of newborns.
    AIDS Patient Care and STDs , 1997 Aug. : 11(4)227-36
  • Charbonneau TT, Wade NA, Weiner L, Omene J, Frenkel L, Wethers JA, Arpadi S, Bamji M, Frey HM, Gupta A, Conroy JM for the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trial Group and Protocol 076 team
    Vertical transmission of HIV in New York State: a basis for statewide testing of newborns.
    AIDS Patient Care STDs , 1997 Aug. : 11(4)227-36
  • Englund JA, Baker CJ, Raskino C, McKinney RE, Petrie B, Fowler MG, Pearson D, Gershon A, McSherry GD, Abrams EJ, Schliozberg J, Sullivan JL. AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Study 152 Team (Frenkel LM)
    Zidovudine, didanosine, or both as the initial treatment for symptomatic HIV-infected children. AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Study 152 Team.
    The New England Journal of Medicine , 1997 June 12 : 336(24)1704-12
  • Frenkel LM, Cowles MK, Shapiro DE, Melvin AJ, Watts DH, McLellan C, Mohan K, Murante B, Burchett S, Bryson YJ, O’Sullivan MJ, Mitchell C, Landers D
    Analysis of the maternal components of the AIDS clinical trial group 076 zidovudine regimen in the prevention of mother-to-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases , 1997 Apr, : 175(4)971-4
  • Melvin AJ, Tamura GS, House JK, Hobson AC, Cone RW, Frenkel LM, Burchett S
    Lack of detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in the saliva of infected children and adolescents.
    Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine , 1997 Mar. : 151(3)228-32
  • Melvin AJ, Burchett SK, Watts DH, Hitti J, Hughes JP, McLellan CL, King PD, Johnson EJ, Williams BL, Frenkel LM, Coombs RW
    Effect of pregnancy and zidovudine therapy on viral load in HIV-1-infected women.
    Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology: Official Publication of the International Retrovirology of Association , 1997 Mar. 1 : 14(3)232-6
  • Frenkel LM
    Dientamoeba fragilis
    Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases , 1997 : Feigin RD, Cherry JD(4th ed W.B. Saunders Co, Philadelphia, PA)2403-6
  • Melvin AJ, Frenkel LM
    Prevention of mother-to-infant transmission of HIV-1
    Molec. Med. Today , 1997 : 3242-45
  • Melvin AJ, Frenkel LM
    Pediatric HIV-1 Disease: new developments in treatment and prevention
    AIDS Clinical Review 1997/1998 , 1997 : Volberding PA, Jacobson MA(Marcel Dekker, Inc, NY, NY)109-29
  • Sperling RS, Shapiro DE, Coombs RW, Todd JA, Herman SA, McSherry GD, O'Sullivan MJ, VanDyke RB, Jimenez E, Rouzioux C, Flynn PM, Sullivan JL for ACTG 076 Investigators (Frenkel LM)
    Maternal viral load, zidovudine treatment, and the risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from mother to infant. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 076 Study Group.
    The New England Journal of Medicine , 1996 Nov. 28 : 335(22)1621-9
  • Shafer RW, Winters MA, Mayers D, Japour A, Kuritzkes D, Weislow O, White F, Erice A, Sannerud K, Iverson A, Pena F, Dimitrov D, Frenkel LM, Reichelderfer P
    Interlaboratory comparison of sequence-specific PCR and ligase detection reaction to detect a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug resistance mutation. The AIDS Clinical Trials Group Virology Committee Drug Resistance Working Group.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology , 1996 July : 34(7)1849-53
  • Del Toro A, Berkowitz R, Meyerowitz C, Frenkel L
    Oral findings in asymptomatic (P-1) and symptomatic (P-2) HIV infected children.
    Pediatric Dentistry , 1996 Mar. - 1996 Apr, : 18(2)114-6
  • Frenkel LM, Nielsen K, Garakian A, Wolinsky JS, Cherry JD
    A search for persistent rubella virus infection in persons with chronic symptoms after rubella and rubella immunization and in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases: an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America , 1996 Feb. : 22(2)287-94
  • Berkowitz R, Frenkel LM
    Cancer in the HIV-Infected Child
    Pediatr. Dent , 1996 : 18127-128
  • Nickel RT, Bussman J, Frenkel LM, Hylton JR, Miller M, Presler B
    Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Children and Adolescents
    Community Consultants in the Care of Children with Special Health Care Needs. OHSU , 1996
  • Nielsen K, Wei LS, Sim M-S, Deveikis A, Keller M, Stiehm ER, Frenkel LM, Bryson YJ
    Correlation of clinical progression in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children with in vitro zidovudine resistance measured by a direct quantitative peripheral blood lymphocyte assay.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases , 1995 Aug. : 172(2)359-64
  • Frenkel LM, Wagner LE II, Demeter LM, Dewhurst S, Coombs RW, Murante BL, Reichman RC
    Effects of zidovudine use during pregnancy on resistance and vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases: an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America , 1995 May : 20(5)1321-6
  • Nielsen K, Garakian A, Frenkel LM, Cherry JD
    The in vitro growth and serial passage of RA 27/3 rubella vaccine virus in cord blood mononuclear leukocytes from normal babies.
    Pediatric Research , 1995 May : 37(5)623-5
  • Frenkel LM, Wagner LE II, Atwood S, Cummings TJ, Dewhurst S
    Specific, sensitive, and rapid assay for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 pol mutations associated with resistance to zidovudine and didanosine.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology , 1995 Feb. : 33(2)342-7
  • Frenkel LM
    Herpes simplex virus infections in adolescents
    Adolescent Medicine: Viral Infections in Adolescents, State of the Art Reviews , 1995 : Overturf GD, Jacobs RF; 6(Hanley & Belfus, Inc, Philadelphia)65-77
  • Frenkel LM, Catapano P
    Gastrointestinal manifestations
    Criteria for the Medical Care of Children and Adolescents with HIV Infection AIDS Institute, New York State Department of Health , 1995 : 107-132
  • Connor EM, Sperling RS, Gelber R, Kiselev P, Scott G, O'Sullivan MJ, VanDyke R, Bey M, Shearer W, Jacobson RL, Jimenez E, O'Neill E, Bazin B, Delfraissy J-F, Culnane M, R Coombs, Elkins M, Moye J, Stratton P, Balsley J for ACTG 076 Investigators (Frenkel LM)
    Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovudine treatment. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 076 Study Group.
    The New England Journal of Medicine , 1994 Nov. 3 : 331(18)1173-80
  • Gutman LT, Moye J, Zimmer B, Tian C, and Pediatric Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Clinical Trials Group (Frenkel LM)
    Tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-exposed or -infected United States children.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal , 1994 Nov. : 13(11)963-8
  • Cherry JD, Frenkel LM
    Adenoviral Infections
    Principles and Practice of Pediatrics , 1994 : 2nd ed; Oski FA, DeAngelis CD, Feigin RD, McMillan JA, Warshaw JB(JG Lippincott Co, New York)
  • Watchi R, Stiehm ER, Fahey JL, Stone M, Deveikis A, Frenkel LM, Aldrovandi G, Rourke S, Wei L, Bryson YJ
    Neopterin is a better predictor of disease severity than beta 2-microglobulin in pediatric HIV infection.
    Pediatric AIDS HIV Infections , 1994 : 5226-31
  • Frenkel LM, Nielsen K, Garakian A, Cherry JD
    A search for persistent measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine virus in children with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.
    Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine , 1994 Jan. : 148(1)57-60
  • Frenkel LM
    Pseudomonas folliculitis from sponges promoted as beauty aids.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology , 1993 Oct. : 31(10)2838
  • Working Group on Antiretroviral Therapy: National Pediatric HIV Resource Center (Pizzo PA, Wilfert CM; Frenkel LM)
    Antiretroviral therapy and medical management of the human immunodeficiency virus-infected child.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal , 1993 June : 12(6)513-22
  • Frenkel LM, Garratty EM, Shen JP, Wheeler N, Clark O, Bryson YJ
    Clinical reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in seropositive pregnant women with no history of genital herpes.
    Annals of Internal Medicine , 1993 Mar. 15 : 118(6)414-8
  • Cvetkovich T, Frenkel LM
    Current management of pediatric HIV infection
    Pediatr. Ann , 1993 : 22428-435
  • 5. Annuziato P. Frenkel LM
    Epidemiology of pediatric and adolescent HIV infection
    Pediatr. Ann , 1993 : 22401-405
  • Prober CG, Corey L, Brown ZA, Hensleigh PA, Frenkel LM, Bryson YJ, Whitley RJ, Arvin AM
    The management of pregnancies complicated by genital infections with herpes simplex virus.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases: an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America , 1992 Dec. : 15(6)1031-8
  • Hill D, Thomas JC, Kerndt P, Cheng KJ, Frenkel LM, Settlage RH, Lee M, Yonkers ML
    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 seroprevalence among parturients in Los Angeles County public hospitals.
    Obstetrics and Gynecology , 1992 May : 79(5 (pt 1))657-60
  • Frenkel LM
    Blastocystis hominis
    Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases , 1992 : Feigin RD, Cherry JD(3rd ed WB Saunders Co, Philadelphia, PA)
  • Frenkel LM
    Dientamoeba fragilis
    Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases , 1992 : Feigin RD, Cherry JD(WB Saunders Co, Philadelphia, PA)
  • Stiehm ER, Bryson YJ, Frenkel LM, Szelc CM, Gillespie S, Williams ME, Watkins JM
    Prednisone improves human immunodeficiency virus encephalopathy in children.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Society , 1992 Jan. : 11(1)49-50
  • Frenkel LM, Brown ZA, Bryson YJ, Corey L, Unadkat JD, Hensleigh PA, Arvin AM, Prober CG, Connor JD. 1991
    Pharmacokinetics of acyclovir in the term human pregnancy and neonate.
    American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology , 1991 Feb. : 164(2)569-76
  • Stone M, Frenkel LM, Howard D
    Histoplasmosis after multiple trauma.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal , 1990 Oct. : 9(10)747-9
  • Sharkey PK, Graybill JR, Rinaldi MG, Stevens DA, Tucker RM, Peterie JD, Hoeprich PD, Greer DL, Frenkel LM, Counts GW, Goodrich J, Zellner S, Bradsher RW, van der Horst CM, Israel K, Pankey GA, Barranco CP. 1990
    Itraconazole treatment of phaeohyphomycosis.
    Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology , 1990 Sept. : 23(3 pt 2)577-86
  • Frenkel LM, Cherry JD
    Adenoviral Infections
    Principles and Practice of Pediatrics , 1990 : Oski FA, DeAngelis C, Feigin RD, Warshaw JB(JG Lippincott Co, New York)
  • Bernstein DI, Frenkel LM, Bryson YJ, Meyers MG. 1990
    Antibody response to herpes simplex virus glycoproteins gB and gD.
    Journal of Medical Virology , 1990 Jan. : 30(1)45-9
  • Frenkel LM, Pineda E, Garratty E, Fall H, Dillon M, Bryson Y
    A prospective study of the effects of acyclovir treatment on the HSV-2 lymphoproliferative response of persons with frequently recurring HSV-2 genital infections.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases , 1989 May : 159(5)845-50
  • Frenkel LM, Bryson YJ. 1987
    Ontogeny of phytohemagglutinin-induced gamma interferon by leukocytes of healthy infants and children: evidence for decreased production in infants younger than 2 months of age.
    The Journal of Pediatrics , 1987 July : 111(1)97-100
  • Holland GN, Sidikaro Y, Krieger AE, Hardy D, Sakamoto MJ, Frenkel LM, Winston DJ, Gottlieb MS, Bryson YJ, Champlin RE, Ho WG, Winters RE, Wolfe PR, Cherry JD
    Treatment of cytomegalovirus retinopathy with ganciclovir.
    Ophthalmology , 1987 July : 94(7)815-23
  • Holland G, Sakamoto MJ, Hardy D, Sidikaro Y, Krieger AE, Frenkel LM, UCLA CMV Retinopathy Study Group. 1986
    Treatment of cytomegalovirus retinopathy in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Use of the experimental drug 9-[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxymethyl]guanine.
    Archives of Ophthalmology , 1986 Dec. : 104(12)1794-800
  • Melvin AJ, Frenkel LM
    Pediatric HIV-1 Disease
    Obstetrical Clinics of North America : 24(Minkoff H)911-924

Presentations

Presentations Title Event Location Date
Invited Speaker, Antiretroviral Treatment in Children International Course HIV: Pathogenesis, Prevention and Treatment2015: Toward to HIV Cure Lima, Peru 2015
Invited Speaker, Rapid inexpensive point-of-care assays Global WACh Seminar Series: 2014
Invited Speaker, Conference on Cell and Gene Therapy for HIV Cure 2014 FHCRC Seattle, WA 2014
Invited Speaker, Pediatric Departmental Grand Rounds Speaker Seattle Children's Hospital Seattle, WA 2014
Invited Speaker, Pediatric Departmental Grand Rounds UCLA 2014
Use of point mutation assays for resistance testing in Kenya - challenges and benefits Invited Speaker, Collaborative Meeting on Defining Key HIV-1 Mutations for Determining ARV Resistance in Low and Middle Income Countries Cape Town, South Africa 2014
Strategies Towards HIV CURE for Infected Children Washington, DC 2013
HIV Reservoirs and Viral Eradication Transformative Science Group (Cure TSG) of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group 2013
Invited Speaker, HIV Dynamics and Evolution Meeting Asheville, North Carolina 2012
Invited Speaker, HIV Pathogenesis, Prevention and Treatment 2012 Lima, Peru 2012
Invited Speaker, XII Congreso de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Tropicales, Lima, Peru 2011
Invited Speaker, XII Congreso de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Tropicales Lima, Peru 2011
Invited Speaker, HIV Pathogenesis, Prevention and Treatment 2010. Lima, Peru 2010
Invited Speaker, 2nd Canada-Colombia Collaborative Research Wkshp HIV, Cali, Colombia 2010
Invited Speaker, 5th Annual Research Symposium, Seattle Children’s Research Institute 2010
Invited Speaker, NIH US-Japan, HIV Resistance Meeting, Singapore 2010
Invited Speaker, NIH US-Japan, HIV Resistance Meeting Singapore 2010
Invited Speaker, 5th Annual Research Symposium Seattle Childrens Research Institute 2010
Invited Speaker, 2nd Canada-Colombia Collaborative Research Wkshp HIV Cali, Colombia 2010
Invited Speaker, HIV Pathogenesis, Prevention and Treatment 2010 Lima, Peru 2010
Invited Speaker, Seattle Biomedical Research Institute Seattle, WA 2008
Invited Speaker, XVIII Curso Internacional Enfoque Global en el Cuidado de la Salud Peru 2008
Invited Speaker, African International Conference on Immunity, Vic Falls, Zimbabwe 2007
Invited Speaker, International Course: HIV, pathogenesis, prevention and treatment Peru 2007
Invited Speaker, 5th Annual Western Regional International Health Conference UW 2007
Invited Speaker, "Scaling Up and Optimizing HIV Treatment and Care in Asia" Thailand 2006
Invited Speaker, Laboratory Quality Assurance and Capacity Building for HIV Research in Zimbabwe University of Zimbabwe, Harare Feb. 7, 2005 - Feb. 9, 2005
Invited Speaker, 2nd Workshop on HIV Persistence St Martin 2005
Invited Speaker. 3rd Annual Western Regional International Health Conference, February 20, Invited Speaker. 3rd Annual Western Regional International Health Conference, February 20, University of Washington, Seattle 2005
Invited, American Association of Clinical Chemistry Annual Meeting 2004, Edutrak "The Clinical Impact of Viral Mutations" Los Angeles July 2004
"HIV-1 Pathogenesis" and "Pediatric HIV-1 Disease and Treatment" Kenya: Fogarty IARTP Course: Principles of HIV Care and Research Jan. 19, 2004 - Jan. 23, 2004
Testing for HIV-1 Drug Resistance Using Filter Paper Specimens, Manuscript Preparation, Drug-Resistance in Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV-1 India: 4th International AIDS India Conference (3 lectures) Nov. 7, 2003 - Nov. 11, 2003
Invited Speaker, 8th International Congress of the International Association of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Clinical Toxicology Basel, Switzerland 2003
Visiting Professor, Childrens Hospital Washington DC 2003
Invited Speaker, 9th International Workshop on Virus Evolution and Molecular Epidemiology, Stanford University Palo Alto, CA 2003
2003 Invited, International Course on HIV-1 Pathogenesis, Prevention and Treatment Lima, Peru 2003
Detection of HIV-1 Resistance to Antiretrovirals using the Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Invited Speaker, Surveillance of Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Atlanta, GA 2003
"Survivors of Childhood Disease: New Challenges for Clinicians." Visiting Professor, University of Texas in San Antonio 2002
Invited, NIH-Caribbean Workshop on HIV/AIDS San Juan, Puerto Rico 2002
Invited Faculty, Course on MTCT of HIV Chennai, India 2002
Invited Speaker, Challenges in Drug-resistance PACTG San Diego, CA 2002
Invited Speaker, IDSA San Francisco, CA 2001
Invited Speaker, 8th HIV Dynamics and Evolution International Discussion Paris, France 2001
Invited Speaker, Pediatric HIV-1 Update London, England 2000
Invited Speaker, IDSA New Orleans, LA 2000
Invited Speaker, Thai Physicians of America Conf Chiang Mai, Thailand 2000
Invited Speaker, HIV-1 Symposia Bangkok, Thailand 2000
Invited Speaker, 2nd Annual Chilean Conference on Antiretroviral Therapy 1999
Invited Speaker, IX Peruvian Course of STD/HIV Lima, Peru 1999
Invited Speaker, HIV-1 Update Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 1999
Invited Speaker, Meet-the-Experts: Perinatal HIV Transmission, ICAAC 1999
Invited Speaker, 3rd Bi-Annual Latin American Conference on HIV/AIDS 1997
Invited Speaker, VIII Peruvian Course of STD/HIV Lima, Peru 1997

Research Funding

Grant Title Grantor Amount Award Date
"P1066" - MK-0518-022 (Brooks Jackson) Johns Hopkins University $11,447 annual direct costs Jan. 1, 2015 - Dec. 31, 2015
Administrative Supplement (PEPFAR) - R01 AI100037 NIH $436,863 annual direct costs July 15, 2014 - May 31, 2016
"Evaluation of mHealth strategies to optimize adherence and efficacy of PMTCT/ART" - R01 HD080460 (PI: John-Stewart) NIH $11,393 subcontract annual direct costs May 1, 2014 - April 30, 2019
"A rapid point-of-treatment diagnostic assay for HIV-resistance to 1st-line ART" - R01 AI110375 NIH $250,000 annual direct costs May 1, 2014 - April 30, 2019
"Mechanisms of Formation and Persistence of Active HIV Reservoirs" - R01 AI111806 (PI: Mullins) NIH $114,390 subcontract annual direct costs April 1, 2014 - March 31, 2019
"International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT) Group" Virology Lab - UM1 AI106716 (PI: Aldrovandi) NIH $95,547 annual direct costs Jan. 1, 2014 - Nov. 30, 2020
"University of Washington Center for AIDS Research" (CFAR) - P30 AI027757 (PI: Holmes) NIH $11,528 annual direct costs June 1, 2013 - May 31, 2016
"Detection of HIV drug resistance mutations using highly multiplexed ligation/qPCR assays" NIH March 31, 2013 - April 1, 2014
"International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT) Group" NIH Sept. 1, 2012 - Dec. 31, 2013
"Drug-resistance testing in Kenya to improve ART suppression of HIV replication" (PEPFAR) - R01 AI100037 NIH $695,729 annual direct costs June 3, 2012 - May 31, 2016
"Academic Pediatric Infectious Disease" - T32 HD007233 NIH $277,930 annual direct costs May 1, 2012 - April 30, 2017
"HIV-1 evolution in the female genital tract and trafficking in the blood" - R01AI091550. NIH/NIAID $254,817 annual direct costs Jan. 21, 2011 - Dec. 31, 2015
"Immunologic and Virologic Events in Early HIV Infection" (SEAPIP) - P01 AI057005 (Mullins). NIH $101,000 annual direct costs July 15, 2010 - June 30, 2015
"Quantification and Dynamics of HIV-1 Drug-Resistant Mutants by Pyrosequencing" NIH July 1, 2009 - June 30, 2013
"Low-frequency HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations in Primary HIV-1 Infection" - R01 AI078802 (Steckler) NIH $61,594 annual direct costs April 1, 2009 - June 30, 2015
"Effect of Lactobacillus on Genital HIV-1 RNA and DNA Shedding in Women" NIH Sept. 30, 2008 - Aug. 31, 2010
"International and Domestic Pediatric and Maternal HIV Studies Coordinating Center" - NO1-DK-8-0001 (Melvin). NIH $11,360 annual direct costs Dec. 16, 2007 - Nov. 30, 2015
"International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT) Group" NIH July 1, 2006 - May 31, 2013
"Etiology of Mastitis in HIV-1 Infected Women" NIH Aug. 15, 2005 - July 31, 2009
"Occurrence and Outcome of Dual HIV-1 Infection" - R37 AI047734 (Mullins) NIH $4,987 annual direct costs July 5, 2005 - March 31, 2016
"Reservoirs of Drug-Resistant HIV-1" NIH March 1, 2005 - Feb. 28, 2012
"Does HIV Continue to Replicate in Lung Macrophages of Children on Effective Therapy?" The Foster Foundation Jan. 1, 2005 - Dec. 31, 2009
"Reservoirs of drug-resistant HIV-1" NIAID-NIH May 1, 2004 - April 30, 2006
"Pediatric HIV Clinical Trials Network" Nov. 1, 2003 - Oct. 31, 2008
"Immunology and Molecular Virology of Acute HIV Infection; Core C: Specimen and Repository" NIH Sept. 30, 2003 - March 31, 2008
"Adaptation of an OLA for detection of drug-resistant HIV-1 mutants to non-B subtypes" NIH; Center for AIDS Research March 1, 2003 - Feb. 29, 2004
"HIV Pathogenesis and Shedding" NIH Sept. 15, 2002 - Aug. 31, 2006
"A pilot study to evaluate a novel method to quantify mitochondrial integrity of leukocytes and red blood cells in cord and peripheral blood." Bristol Meyer Squibb April 1, 2002 - Dec. 31, 2003
"Immunization by HIV Exposure During Chemoprophylaxis" NIH Sept. 1, 2001 - Sept. 29, 2009
"Prevention of HIV resistance to nevirapine in pregnancy." Fogarty International Center, NIH July 1, 2001 - Sept. 30, 2008
"Womens HIV-1 Pathogenesis Program Project" NIH April 1, 2001 - March 31, 2008
"Viral Lymphocyte Dynamics in Children" The Foster Foundation Jan. 1, 2001 - Dec. 31, 2001
"Pediatric AIDS Foundation Emergency Funds." Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation Jan. 1, 2001 - Dec. 31, 2001
"Children Affected by AIDS Foundation" Jan. 1, 2001 - Dec. 31, 2001
"Viral Lymphocyte Dynamics in Children " The Foster Foundation Jan. 1, 2000 - Dec. 31, 2000
"Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group" NIH Feb. 1, 1999 - Jan. 31, 2000
"Pediatric AIDS Emergency Funds" Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation Jan. 1, 1999 - Dec. 31, 2000
"Viral Lymphocyte Dynamics in Children" The Foster Foundation Dec. 19, 1998 - Dec. 31, 1999
"Monitoring the emergence of HIV-1 resistance to antiretroviral drugs in Latin America." World Health Organization (WHO/UNAIDS) Oct. 1, 1998 - Oct. 1, 1999
"Immunizing by Mucosal SIV Exposure during RT Inhibition" NIH Sept. 30, 1998 - Sept. 29, 2001
"Ryan White Titles I and IV" Seattle-King County Department of Public Health Aug. 1, 1997 - July 31, 2001
"Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group" NIH
"Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group" NIH
"Transient HIV infection in infants." The Foster Foundation Dec. 19, 1996 - Dec. 18, 1998
"Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group" NIH Feb. 28, 1992 - Feb. 28, 1997