Timothy Rose, PhD

Children's Title: Co-Director, Center for Global Infectious Disease Research

Academic Title: Professor

Research Center: Center for Developmental Biology and Regenerative Medicine

  • Timothy Rose, PhD: Professor of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. The Rose Lab focuses on the role of the Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpes virus and related simian viruses in the etiology of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and other AIDS-related malignancies.

    Current projects include the identification and characterization of cellular receptors mediating viral infection, the comparative analysis of KSHV and its simian homologs and their role in tumor induction in association with HIV-induced immunosuppression, the characterization of latency and the activating switch to herpesvirus replication, and the development of diagnostic tests for novel viruses.

  • Award Name Award Description Awarded By Award Date
    Outstanding Mentor School of Public Health and Community Medicine 2007
    K02 Independent Scientist Award National Institutes of Health 2001 - 2006
    Outstanding Teacher School of Public Health and Community Medicine 1998
    Shannon Award National Institutes of Health 1996
  • Manuscripts in Refereed Journals

    • Ikoma M, Gantt S, Casper C, Ogata Y, Zhang Q, Basom R, Dyen MR, Rose TM, Barcy S
      KSHV oral shedding and plasma viremia result in significant changes in the extracellular tumorigenic miRNA expression profile in individuals infected with the malaria parasite.
      29425228 PloS one, 2018 : 13(2)e0192659 PMCID:PMC5806893
    • Chouhy D, Kocjan BJ, Staheli JP, Bolatti EM, HoÅ¡njak L, Sagadin M, Giri AA, Rose TM, Poljak M
      Detection of novel Betapapillomaviruses and Gammapapillomaviruses in eyebrow hair follicles using a single-tube 'hanging droplet' PCR assay with modified pan-PV CODEHOP primers.
      29244018 The Journal of general virology, 2018 Jan. : 99(1)109-118
    • Howard K, Cherezova L, DeMaster LK, Rose TM
      ORF73 LANA homologs of RRV and MneRV2 contain an extended RGG/RG-rich nuclear and nucleolar localization signal that interacts directly with importin β1 for non-classical nuclear import.
      28850829 Virology, 2017 Nov. : 511152-164
    • Garrigues HJ, Howard K, Barcy S, Ikoma M, Moses AV, Deutsch GH, Wu D, Ueda K, Rose TM
      Full-length isoforms of KSHV LANA accumulate in the cytoplasm of cells undergoing the lytic cycle of replication.
      28978712 Journal of virology, 2017 Oct. 4
    • Bruce AG, Barcy S, DiMaio T, Gan E, Garrigues HJ, Lagunoff M, Rose TM
      Quantitative Analysis of the KSHV Transcriptome Following Primary Infection of Blood and Lymphatic Endothelial Cells.
      28335496 Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 2017 March 19 : 6(1) PMCID:PMC5371899
    • Bruce AG, Horst JA, Rose TM
      Conservation of the glycoprotein B homologs of the Kaposi׳s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8) and old world primate rhadinoviruses of chimpanzees and macaques.
      27070755 Virology, 2016 July : 49429-46 PMCID:PMC4884460
    • Bruce AG, Thouless ME, Haines AS, Pallen MJ, Grundhoff A, Rose TM
      Complete genome sequence of Pig-tailed macaque rhadinovirus 2 and its evolutionary relationship with rhesus macaque rhadinovirus and human herpesvirus 8/Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.
      25609822 Journal of virology, 2015 April : 89(7)3888-909 PMCID:PMC4403432
    • Garrigues HJ, DeMaster LK, Rubinchikova YE, Rose TM
      KSHV attachment and entry are dependent on αVβ3 integrin localized to specific cell surface microdomains and do not correlate with the presence of heparan sulfate.
      25063885 Virology, 2014 Sept. : 464-465118-33 PMCID:PMC4157101
    • Stockinger DE, Fong DL, Vogel KW, Durning WM, Torrence AE, Rose TM, Staheli JP, Baldessari A, Murnane RD, Hukkannen RR
      Oral squamous cell carcinoma in a pigtailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina).
      24956217 Comparative medicine, 2014 June : 64(3)234-9 PMCID:PMC4067589
    • Garrigues HJ, Rubinchikova YE, Rose TM
      KSHV cell attachment sites revealed by ultra sensitive tyramide signal amplification (TSA) localize to membrane microdomains that are up-regulated on mitotic cells.
      24606685 Virology, 2014 March : 452-45375-85 PMCID:PMC3955009
    • DeMaster LK, Rose TM
      A critical Sp1 element in the rhesus rhadinovirus (RRV) Rta promoter confers high-level activity that correlates with cellular permissivity for viral replication.
      24314650 Virology, 2014 Jan. 5 : 448196-209 PMCID:PMC3904427
    • Bruce AG, Ryan JT, Thomas MJ, Peng X, Grundhoff A, Tsai CC, Rose TM
      Next-generation sequence analysis of the genome of RFHVMn, the macaque homolog of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus, from a KS-like tumor of a pig-tailed macaque.
      24109218 Journal of virology, 2013 Dec. : 87(24)13676-93 PMCID:PMC3838293
    • Dury AY, El Fatimy R, Tremblay S, Rose TM, Côté J, De Koninck P, Khandjian EW
      Nuclear Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein is localized to Cajal bodies.
      24204304 PLoS genetics, 2013 Oct. : 9(10)e1003890 PMCID:PMC3814324
    • Ryan JT | Rose TM
      Development of whole-virus multiplex luminex-based serological assays for diagnosis of infections with kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 homologs in macaques.
      PMC3592352 Clinical and vaccine immunology : CVI, 2013 March : 20(3)409-19
    • Ryan JT | Rose TM
      Development of whole-virus multiplex luminex-based serological assays for diagnosis of infections with kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 homologs in macaques.
      PMC3592352 Clinical and vaccine immunology : CVI, 2013 March : 20(3)409-19
    • Bruce AG, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Barcy S, Bakke AM, Lewis P, Tsai CC, Murnane RD, Rose TM
      Macaque homologs of EBV and KSHV show uniquely different associations with simian AIDS-related lymphomas.
      23055934 PLoS pathogens, 2012 : 8(10)e1002962 PMCID:PMC3464224
    • Cherezova L, Burnside KL, Rose TM
      Conservation of complex nuclear localization signals utilizing classical and non-classical nuclear import pathways in LANA homologs of KSHV and RFHV.
      21559489 PloS one, 2011 April 29 : 6(4)e18920 PMCID:PMC3084728
    • Staheli JP, Boyce R, Kovarik D, Rose TM
      CODEHOP PCR and CODEHOP PCR primer design.
      20967601 Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2011 : 68757-73
    • Bruce AG, Bakke AM, Gravett CA, DeMaster LK, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Burnside KL, Rose TM
      The ORF59 DNA polymerase processivity factor homologs of Old World primate RV2 rhadinoviruses are highly conserved nuclear antigens expressed in differentiated epithelium in infected macaques.
      19922662 Virology journal, 2009 Nov. 18 : 6205 PMCID:PMC2785786
    • Staheli JP, Ryan JT, Bruce AG, Boyce R, Rose TM
      Consensus-degenerate hybrid oligonucleotide primers (CODEHOPs) for the detection of novel viruses in non-human primates.
      19477279 Methods (San Diego, Calif.), 2009 Sept. : 49(1)32-41 PMCID:PMC2751581
    • Boyce R, Chilana P, Rose TM
      iCODEHOP: a new interactive program for designing COnsensus-DEgenerate Hybrid Oligonucleotide Primers from multiply aligned protein sequences.
      19443442 Nucleic acids research, 2009 July : 37(Web Server)W222-8 PMCID:PMC2703993
    • Yilmaz O, Yao L, Maeda K, Rose TM, Lewis EL, Duman M, Lamont RJ, Ojcius DM
      ATP scavenging by the intracellular pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis inhibits P2X7-mediated host-cell apoptosis.
      18005240 Cellular microbiology, 2008 April : 10(4)863-75 PMCID:PMC2637656
    • Garrigues HJ, Rubinchikova YE, Dipersio CM, Rose TM
      Integrin alphaVbeta3 Binds to the RGD motif of glycoprotein B of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and functions as an RGD-dependent entry receptor.
      18045938 Journal of virology, 2008 Feb. : 82(3)1570-80 PMCID:PMC2224453
    • Garrigues HJ, Rubinchikova YE, Dipersio CM, Rose TM
      Integrin alphaVbeta3 Binds to the RGD motif of glycoprotein B of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and functions as an RGD-dependent entry receptor.
      18045938 Journal of virology, 2008 Feb. : 82(3)1570-80 PMCID:PMC2224453
    • Bruce AG | Bakke AM | Bielefeldt-Ohmann H | Ryan JT | Thouless ME | Tsai CC | Rose TM
      High levels of retroperitoneal fibromatosis (RF)-associated herpesvirus in RF lesions in macaques are associated with ORF73 LANA expression in spindleoid tumour cells.
      The Journal of general virology, 2006 Dec. : 87(Pt 12)3529-38
    • Burnside KL | Ryan JT | Bielefeldt-Ohmann H | Gregory Bruce A | Thouless ME | Tsai CC | Rose TM
      RFHVMn ORF73 is structurally related to the KSHV ORF73 latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) and is expressed in retroperitoneal fibromatosis (RF) tumor cells.
      Virology, 2006 Oct. 10 : 354(1)103-15
    • Philipp-Staheli J, Marquardt T, Thouless ME, Bruce AG, Grant RF, Tsai CC, Rose TM
      Genetic variability of the envelope gene of Type D simian retrovirus-2 (SRV-2) subtypes associated with SAIDS-related retroperitoneal fibromatosis in different macaque species.
      16515713 Virology journal, 2006 March 6 : 311 PMCID:PMC1450265
    • Burton M, Rose TM, Faergeman NJ, Knudsen J
      Evolution of the acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP).
      16018771 The Biochemical journal, 2005 Dec. 1 : 392(Pt 2)299-307 PMCID:PMC1316265
    • Rose TM
      CODEHOP-mediated PCR - a powerful technique for the identification and characterization of viral genomes.
      15769292 Virology journal, 2005 March 15 : 220 PMCID:PMC1079958
    • Bruce AG, Bakke AM, Thouless ME, Rose TM
      Development of a real-time QPCR assay for the detection of RV2 lineage-specific rhadinoviruses in macaques and baboons.
      15634356 Virology journal, 2005 Jan. 5 : 22 PMCID:PMC544863
    • Rose TM | Henikoff JG | Henikoff S
      CODEHOP (COnsensus-DEgenerate Hybrid Oligonucleotide Primer) PCR primer design.
      PMC168931 Nucleic acids research, 2003 July 1 : 31(13)3763-6
    • Rose TM | Ryan JT | Schultz ER | Raden BW | Tsai CC
      Analysis of 4.3 kilobases of divergent locus B of macaque retroperitoneal fibromatosis-associated herpesvirus reveals a close similarity in gene sequence and genome organization to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.
      PMC153986 Journal of virology, 2003 : 77(9)5084-97
    • Hermouet S | Sutton CA | Rose TM | Greenblatt RJ | Corre I | Garand R | Neves AM | Bataille R | Casey JW
      Qualitative and quantitative analysis of human herpesviruses in chronic and acute B cell lymphocytic leukemia and in multiple myeloma.
      Leukemia, 2003 Jan. : 17(1)185-95
    • Xie H | Cook GS | Costerton JW | Bruce G | Rose TM | Lamont RJ
      Intergeneric communication in dental plaque biofilms.
      PMC94835 Journal of bacteriology, 2000 Dec. : 182(24)7067-9
    • Schultz ER | Rankin GW Jr | Blanc MP | Raden BW | Tsai CC | Rose TM
      Characterization of two divergent lineages of macaque rhadinoviruses related to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.
      PMC112020 Journal of virology, 2000 May : 74(10)4919-28
    • Khandjian EW | Rose TM
      Disruption of LT-antigen/p53 complex by heat treatment correlates with inhibition of DNA synthesis during transforming infection with SV40.
      Biochemistry and cell biology = Biochimie et biologie cellulaire, 2000 : 78(4)437-45
    • Bosch ML | Strand KB | Rose TM
      Gammaherpesvirus sequence comparisons.
      PMC110245 Journal of virology, 1998 Oct. : 72(10)8458-9
    • Diamond C | Huang ML | Kedes DH | Speck C | Rankin GW Jr | Ganem D | Coombs RW | Rose TM | Krieger JN | Corey L
      Absence of detectable human herpesvirus 8 in the semen of human immunodeficiency virus-infected men without Kaposi's sarcoma.
      The Journal of infectious diseases, 1997 Sept. : 176(3)775-7
    • Rose TM | Schultz ER | Sasaki GC | Kolattukudy PE | Shoyab M
      Nucleotide sequence and genomic structure of duck acyl-CoA binding protein/diazepam-binding inhibitor: co-localization with S-acyl fatty acid synthase thioesterase.
      DNA and cell biology, 1994 June : 13(6)669-78
    • Bruce AG | Linsley PS | Rose TM
      Oncostatin M.
      Progress in growth factor research, 1992 : 4(2)157-70
    • Webb NR | Rose TM | Malik N | Marquardt H | Shoyab M | Todaro GJ | Lee DC
      Bovine and human cDNA sequences encoding a putative benzodiazepine receptor ligand.
      DNA (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.), 1987 Feb. : 6(1)71-9
    • Rose TM | Weil R
      Characterization of the surface proteins of SV40-transformed mouse and human cells: absence of SV40-specific proteins.
      International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer, 1983 May : 31(5)639-48

    Published Books, Videos, Software, etc.

    • Boyce, R. and Rose, T.M.
      iCODEHOP: Interactive Consensus Degenerate Hybrid Oligonucleotide Primers
      http://dbmi-icode-01.dbmi.pitt.edu/i-codehop-context/, 2010
    • Lee, M., Olmstead, C. and Rose, T.M.
      Seqhelp and Web interface: A tool for assisting molecular sequence analysis.
      https://bir2.biology.washington.edu/seqhelp/seqhelpinput.html, 1999
    • Olmstead, C., Yarfitz, S. and Rose, T.M.
      Clustal W multiple alignment interface
      https://bir2.biology.washington.edu/clustalw/clustalw_form.html, 1999
    • Schultz, E. and Rose, T.M.
      Amino acid structure and letter code learning tool
      http://bir.biology.washington.edu/AminoAcidQuiz/AAQuiz.html, 1999
    • Pantoja, P. and Rose, T.M.
      Invert DNA sequence
      http://bir.biology.washington.edu/Invert/invert1.html, 1999
    • Rose, T.M., Henikoff, S., Henikoff, J.
      CODEHOP: Consensus-Degenerate Hybrid Oligonucleotide Primers PCR primers designed from multiple protein sequence alignments
      http://www.blocks.fhcrc.org/blocks/codehop.html, 1998
    • Pantoja, P. and Rose, T.M.
      File Converter
      http://bir.biology.washington.edu/GPConverter/converter.html, 1998
    • Wallace, J. and Rose, T.M.
      Restriction site analysis
      http://bir.biology.washington.edu/Restrict/restrict.html, 1997
    • Timothy Rose, PhD
      Various patents created

    Other Publications

    • Gessain A | Rose TM | Lavergne A | Lacoste V
      Comment on Mugisha et al. J Med Primatol 2010; 39: 71-76.
      Journal of Medical Primatology, 2010 Oct. : 39(5)363-4; author reply 365-6

  • Presentations Title Event Location Date
    "Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and AIDS-related malignancies" Inter-Center Discovery Lunch Series, SCRI Dec. 2016
    "RNAseq analysis of KSHV gene expression in Kaposi sarcoma tumors: correlation with in vitro infection models" Center for Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Disease, School of Medicine, University of Washington Sept. 2016
    "RNAseq analysis of KSHV gene expression in Kaposi sarcoma tumors: correlation with in vitro infection models" DNA Virus Group, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Nov. 2015
    "Comprehensive RNAseq analysis of KSHV gene expression in Kaposi sarcoma tumors and correlation with in vitro infection models" 15th International conference on malignancies in AIDS and other acquired immunodeficiencies, Bethesda, Maryland Oct. 2015
    "Integrin alphaV/beta3, a critical cellular receptor for the Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)/human herpesvirus 8" Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC Nov. 2014
    "Integrin alphaV/beta3, a critical cellular receptor for the Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)/human herpesvirus 8" Oral Health Sciences, University of Washington Nov. 2014
    "Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and homologs in non-human primates" Uganda Research in Progress Meetings Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Vaccine Infectious Disease Division April 4, 2012
    "Simian AIDS-related lymphomas are associated with a gammaherpesvirus belonging to either the lymphocryptovirus or rhadinovirus genus" 14th International Workshop on Kaposis sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and related agents Helsinki, Finland Aug. 12, 2011
    "Herpesvirus activation in SIV vaccine studies" Infectious Disease Science Program Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Vaccine Infectious Disease Division Nov. 4, 2010
    "The pig-tailed macaque rhadinovirus is associated with T-cell lymphomas in its natural host" International Workshop for KSHV/HHV8 and Related Agents Los Angeles, CA Sept. 1, 2010
    "Correlating in vitro and in vivo data identifying novel life cycle stages of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and related macaque viruses in different cell types" Center for Systems and Translational Research on Infectious Diseases University of WA May 13, 2010
    "Infectious etiology of AIDS-related malignancies" Infectious Disease Senior Faculty Seminar University of Washington Nov. 9, 2009
    "The search for HHV9, the member of the rhadinovirus-2 (RV2) lineage of Old World primate rhadinoviruses predicted to infect humans" 11th International Workshop for KSHV/HHV8 and Related Agents Charleston, South Carolina Sept. 14, 2009
    "AIDS-related malignancies, etiological herpesviruses and the oral environment" Cross-Disciplinary Dental Science Seminar, Oral Biology 575 University of Washington May 11, 2009
    "Kaposis sarcoma associated herpesvirus and homologs in macaques" Veterinarian Grand Rounds, Washington National Primate Research Center University of Washington Jan. 23, 2009
  • Grant Title Grantor Amount Award Date
    Point-of-care diagnosis and surveillance of known and emerging influenza viruses - R01 AI111303 NIH/NIAID $855,731 annual directs March 15, 2014 - Feb. 28, 2019
    Oral pathogenesis and host interactions of KSHV infection NIH/NIDCR - P01 DE021954 NCE-4/30/2018 June 7, 2011 - April 30, 2016
    POC molecular method for detection of known and emerging respiratory viruses NIH/NIDCR $300,885.00 July 1, 2009
    Viral and cellular factors involved in KSHV entry in cells of the oral mucosa NIH/NIDCR $1,125,000.00 Aug. 15, 2007
    Herpesvirus latency and reactivation in macaque models of human disease NIH/NCRR $1,680,995.00 July 1, 2007


Research Description

Our research is focused on herpesviruses implicated in cellular transformation and tumor induction, and in the study of host and viral proteins and cytokines which mediate these effects. In particular, we are studying the viral etiology of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and other AIDS-related malignancies with regards to the interactions between viruses (retroviruses and herpesviruses) and cytokines in virus activation and tumor induction.

We have discovered and are characterizing a new herpesvirus, retroperitoneal fibromatosis herpesvirus (RFHV), which is a homolog of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) in two macaque species (Rose et al., 1997; Schultz et al., 2000;). The macaque viruses are associated with a Kaposi's sarcoma-like malignancy, called retroperitoneal fibromatosis (RF) (Bruce et al., 2006), which like AIDS-KS is associated with a retrovirus infection. RF occurs in conjunction with simian AIDS (SAIDS) caused by infection with simian retrovirus 2 (SRV2) or the simian homolog of HIV, SIV (Bielefeldt-Ohmann et al., 2005). We have identified a second lineage of KSHV-like rhadinoviruses in macaques and are studying its role in RF and other macaque tumors (Schultz et al., 2000; Bruce et al., 2005). We have recently identified the strain of SRV2 associated with SAIDS-RF in the Washington National Primate Research Center (Staheli et al., 2006) and are studying its role in rhadinovirus activation and tumor induction.

Ongoing projects include the cloning and sequence analysis of the genome of the new macaque herpesvirus (Rose et al., 2003), the search for transformation- and latency-related genes (Burnside et al., 2006) and cytokine inducing genes in these viruses, and the development of the macaque system as an animal model for studying KS in humans. We also identified a cellular entry receptor for KSHV and are studying virus-cell interactions through the virion glycoprotein B using confocal microscopy and cellular biology approaches, (Garrigues et al., 2008). We developed a novel technique using consensus-degenerate hybrid oligonucleotide primers (CODEHOP) for the identification of distantly related genes (Rose et al., 1998; Rose et al., 2003), and have used this technique to discover the macaque herpesviruses described above, as well as to identify other novel retroviruses (Wilson et al., 1998; Osterhaus et al., 1999) and herpesviruses (Rose, 2005).

We have developed an interactive software program and web site for the design of CODEHOP PCR primers for the identification of distantly related genes (iCODEHOP). We are working closely with the Washington National Primate Research Center to identify new pathogens infecting primates maintained at the Center, and are developing CODEHOP PCR assays to detect novel primate virus species.

Finally, we have a strong interest in bioinformatics and have developed a "Biological Information Resource" for students and researchers at the University of Washington. For this resource, sequence analysis software has been developed and DNA and protein databases are maintained for bioinformatics research. We offer a graduate level course in "Bioinformatics and Gene Sequence Analysis"(PABIO/MEBI/PHG 536) for students wishing to further their knowledge and expertise in this field. Our research approaches include virology, using both in vitro and in vivo models, cellular biology, studying signaling and protein interactions, protein chemistry, studying functions of recombinantly expressed proteins and protein mutations, microscopy, using a dedicated confocal microscope, molecular biology, for viral pathogen identification and characterization and bioinformatics, for viral gene and genome analysis.

About My Work


Research Focus Area

Infectious Disease