Research and Clinical Trials
T-Cell Immunotherapy for Cancer
Seattle Children’s is an international leader in research to cure childhood cancer by boosting the immune system with immunotherapy. We treat more types of relapsed or refractory childhood cancers using T-cell therapies than any other facility:
- Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (PLAT and HA-1)
- Acute myeloid leukemia (HA-1)
- Brain and central nervous system tumors (BrainChild)
- Neuroblastoma and other solid tumors (ENCIT and STRIvE)
The CAR T-cell products used in our trials are made onsite at our own state-of-the-art Therapeutic Cell Production Core. This means we can deliver treatments quickly to patients enrolled in clinical trials at Seattle Children’s and at our collaborating sites.
We focus on your whole child, not just their disease. At Seattle Children’s, your family has a full team behind you, taking care of your child’s medical, physical, learning, emotional and comfort needs. Patients and families involved in immunotherapy trials have the dedicated support of a social services specialist.
How does CAR T-cell therapy work?
T cells are white blood cells in the immune system that fight infection. The goal with T-cell immunotherapy is to reprogram a child’s own T cells so they can seek out and destroy cancer cells wherever they are hiding in the body.
Here is how it works:
- We do a procedure called apheresis to isolate the white blood cells from your child’s blood. This takes a few hours. We draw a blood sample from your child. This sample goes to a special part of Seattle Children’s Research Institute called the Therapeutic Cell Production Core. Our lab staff remove the T cells from the sample, purify them and reprogram them. In this case, “reprogram” means to change the T cells by adding recombinant DNA (genetically modify them). Then, the newly programmed T cells multiply into millions of new cells.
- The changed T cells are put back into your child’s body through an intravenous (IV) infusion.
- The hope is that the changed cells will go to work right away, finding and destroying the cancer cells in your child’s body. The T cells make a place on their surface (a receptor) that acts like Velcro. This receptor allows the T cells to recognize and bind to a target on the cancer cells. When they bind, the T cells can attack the cancer cells as if they were fighting an infection.
The receptor that’s made on the T cells is called a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). T cells that have the receptor may be called CAR T cells.
When your child’s T cells are programmed, they are also "tagged." This is so our research team can track them in the body. If doctors want to stop the action of the T cells later, they can do this with the drug cetuximab, which recognizes the tag.
Learn how immunotherapy research at Seattle Children’s is paving the way to become the next great advancement in cancer treatment. Through cellular engineering, we enable the body’s own immune system to heal itself.
Who can benefit from the studies?
Children and young adults who have:
- Relapsed or refractory CD19+ or CD22+ acute leukemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma who have not responded to standard therapies or who have relapsed after other T-cell therapy: PLAT studies
- Relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML), T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or B-cell ALL that does not respond to treatment after a donor stem cell transplant: HA-1 therapy
- Relapsed or refractory brain or central nervous system (CNS) tumors that express the protein HER2 or EGFR: BrainChild-01, -02, and -03
- Recurrent or refractory neuroblastoma who are not likely to survive with current treatments: ENCIT-01
- Relapsed or refractory solid tumors that express the protein EGFR or B7H3: STRIvE-01 or -02.
Meet the Experts
- Katie Albert, MD
- Colleen Annesley, MD
- Marie Bleakley, MD, PhD
- Rebecca Gardner, MD
- Juliane Gust, MD
- Michael Jensen, MD
- Navin Pinto, MD
- Julie Park, MD
- Corinne Summers, MD
- Nicholas Vitanza, MD
Learn more about the people behind our immunotherapy program.
Meet the Heroes (video 4:43)
Updated July 2020.