Should Your Child See a Doctor?

Human or Animal Bite

Is this your child's symptom?

  • Bite or claw wound from a pet, farm or wild animal
  • Bite from a child or adult human

Types of Wounds

  • Bruise. There is no break in the skin. No risk of infection.
  • Scrape, Abrasion or Scratch. A wound that doesn't go all the way through the skin. Low chance of infection. Antibiotic drugs are not needed.
  • Cut, Laceration. A wound that goes through the skin to the fat or muscle tissue. Some chance of infection. Most need to be seen. Cleaning the wound can help prevent this. Antibiotic drugs may be needed.
  • Puncture Wound. These wounds break through the skin. Greater risk of infection. Puncture wounds from cat bites are more likely to get infected. Antibiotic drugs may be needed.
  • Wound Infection. This is the main risk of an animal bite. The main finding is redness around the bite and pain. It starts 1 to 3 days after the bite. It can often be prevented by early, careful cleaning of the bite. This is why most animal bites need to be seen.

Types of Animal Bites

  • Large Wild Animal Bites. Some wild animals can have rabies. Rabies is a disease that can kill people. Bites or scratches from any large wild animal can pass on rabies. Animals that may carry rabies are bats, skunks, raccoons, foxes, or coyotes. These animals may spread rabies even if they have no symptoms.
  • Small Wild Animal Bites. Small animals such as mice, rats, moles, or gophers do not carry rabies. Chipmunks, prairie dogs, squirrels and rabbits also do not carry rabies. Sometimes, their bites can get infected.
  • Large Pet Animal Bites. Most bites from pets are from dogs or cats. Bites from other pets such as horses can be handled using this guide. Dogs and cats are free of rabies in most cities. Stray animals are always at risk for rabies until proven otherwise. Cats and dogs that always stay indoors are free of rabies. The main risk in pet bites is wound infection, not rabies. Cat bites become infected more often than dog bites. Cat scratches can get infected just like a bite because cats lick their claws.
  • Small Indoor Pet Animal Bites. Small indoor pets are at no risk for rabies. Examples of these pets are gerbils, hamsters, guinea pigs, or mice. Tiny puncture wounds from these small animals also don't need to be seen. They carry a small risk for wound infections.
  • Human Bites. Most human bites occur during fights, especially in teenagers. Sometimes a fist is cut when it strikes a tooth. Human bites are more likely to become infected than animal bites. Bites on the hands are at higher risk. Many toddler bites are safe because they don't break the skin.
  • Bat Bites. In the U.S., 90% of cases of rabies in humans are caused by bats. Bats have spread rabies without a visible bite mark.

Animals at Risk for Rabies

  • Bat, skunk, raccoon, fox, or coyote
  • Other large wild animals
  • Pets that have never had rabies shots and spend time outdoors
  • In the US, rabies occurs 4 times more in cats than in dogs.
  • Outdoor animals who are sick or stray
  • Dogs or cats in countries that do not require rabies shots
  • In the US and Canada, bites from city dogs and cats are safe.
  • In the US, there are 2-3 cases of rabies per year in humans.

First Aid for All Bites and Scratches

  • Wash all bite wounds and scratches right now with soap and warm water. Reason: To prevent wound infections.

First Aid for Bleeding

  • Put a gauze pad or clean cloth on top of the wound.
  • Press down firmly on the place that is bleeding.
  • This is called direct pressure. It is the best way to stop bleeding.
  • Keep using pressure until the bleeding stops.
  • If bleeding does not stop, press on a slightly different spot.

When to Call for Bites

Call 911 Now

   
  • Major bleeding that can't be stopped
  • Not moving or too weak to stand
  • You think your child has a life-threatening emergency

Call Doctor Now or Go to ER

  • Wild animal bite that breaks the skin
  • Pet animal such as dog or cat bite that breaks the skin. Exception: minor scratches that don't go through the skin
  • Puncture wound holes through skin from a cat's teeth or claws
  • Puncture wound holes through skin of hand or face
  • Human bite that breaks the skin
  • Bite looks infected redness or red streaks or has a fever
  • Bat contact or exposure, even without a bite mark
  • Your child looks or acts very sick
  • You think your child needs to be seen, and the problem is urgent

Call Doctor Within 24 Hours

  • Last tetanus shot over 5 years ago
  • You think your child needs to be seen, but the problem is not urgent

Call Doctor During Office Hours

  • You have other questions or concerns

Self Care at Home

  • Bite did not break the skin or is only a bruise
  • Minor scratches that don't go through the skin from a pet
  • Tiny puncture wound from small pet, such as a hamster or puppy. Exception: Cat puncture wound

Care Advice for Animal or Human Bite

  1. What You Should Know About Bites:
    • Bites that don't break the skin can't become infected.
    • Cuts and punctures always are at risk for infection.
    • Here is some care advice that should help.
     
  2. Clean the Bite:
    • Wash all wounds right now with soap and water for 5 minutes.
    • Also, flush well under running water for a few minutes. Reason: Can prevent many wound infections.
    • Scrub the wound enough to make it re-bleed a little. Reason: To help with cleaning out the wound.
     
  3. Bleeding - How to Stop:
    • For any bleeding, put pressure on the wound.
    • Use a gauze pad or clean cloth.
    • Press for 10 minutes or until the bleeding has stopped.
     
  4. Antibiotic Ointment:
    • For small cuts, use an antibiotic ointment such as Polysporin. No prescription is needed.
    • Put it on the cut 3 times a day.
    • Do this for 3 days.
     
  5. Pain Medicine:
    • To help with the pain, give an acetaminophen product such as Tylenol.
    • Another choice is an ibuprofen product such as Advil.
    • Use as needed.
     
  6. Cold Pack for Pain:
    • For pain or bruising, use a cold pack. You can also use ice wrapped in a wet cloth. Apply it to the bruise once for 20 minutes. Reason: Helps with bleeding, pain and swelling.
     
  7. What to Expect:
    • Most scratches, scrapes and other minor bites heal up fine in 5 to 7 days.
     
  8. Call Your Doctor If:
    • Bite starts to look infected pus, redness, red streaks
    • Fever occurs
    • You think your child needs to be seen
    • Your child becomes worse

And remember, contact your doctor if your child develops any of the 'Call Your Doctor' symptoms.

Disclaimer: This information is not intended be a substitute for professional medical advice. It is provided for educational purposes only. You assume full responsibility for how you choose to use this information.

Copyright 1994-2015 Barton D. Schmitt, MD. All rights reserved.