What Is Neuroblastoma?
Neuroblastoma is cancer that starts in young nerve cells called neuroblasts.
In a healthy child, these cells become the nerves that control functions such as the heartbeat and blood pressure, and the way your child's body reacts to stress. A part of the nervous system called the sympathetic nervous system controls these functions.
In neuroblastoma, the neuroblasts never mature. Instead, they divide and grow into tumors.
Most often these tumors start in the nerves of the adrenal glands. These glands sit on top of the kidneys and release hormones that control the sympathetic nervous system.
But these tumors can begin in any part of the body. The chest, neck, pelvis and spinal cord are other common places for them.
As the disease goes on, it can spread (metastasize) to other areas of the body. It usually spreads to the lymph nodes (part of the immune system), bones, bone marrow (where blood cells are made), liver or skin.
For most children, the neuroblastoma has spread to at least one of these areas by the time doctors diagnose the disease.
Neuroblastoma in Children
Cancer in children is rare, and neuroblastoma is one of the less common types.
It is the most common solid tumor in children younger than 1 year of age. But it accounts for less than 10% of all childhood cancers.
Most children with this disease get it before age 5. In some kids, the disease starts before birth.
In most cases – no matter what the child's age – parents and doctors don't know the disease is there until tumors grow large enough to be felt.
Doctors do not know what causes the changes in cells that lead to this disease. It's not clear whether certain factors increase a child's risk.
Staging refers to the way doctors classify cancer based on where it is in the body. The cancer stage, along with other factors, helps doctors choose a course of treatment.
Children who have neuroblastoma are considered to be at one of these stages:
Stage 1 neuroblastoma
Applies to children who have a tumor in only one place, and surgeons can remove all of it that they can see.
Stage 2 neuroblastoma
Divided into 2A and 2B:
- 2A applies to children who have a tumor in only one place, and surgeons cannot remove all of it that they can see.
- 2B applies to children who have a tumor in only one place (doctors may or may not be able to remove all of it) and cancer cells in nearby lymph nodes.
Stage 3 neuroblastoma
Applies to children who have any one of these:
- A tumor that doctors cannot remove all the way and that has spread to the other side of the body and maybe to nearby lymph nodes
- A tumor that doctors cannot remove all the way, that is in the middle of the body and that has spread to both sides of the body (in lymph nodes or other structures)
- A tumor in one place on one side of the body and also lymph nodes on the other side of the body
Stage 4 neuroblastoma
Divided into 4 and 4S:
- Stage 4 applies to children whose tumor has spread to distant lymph nodes or other parts of the body.
- Stage 4S applies when the child is younger than 1 year of age and the cancer has spread to the skin, liver or bone marrow, but not to bone. In stage 4S, the primary tumor must be small, doctors may or may not be able to remove it all and cancer cells may or may not be in nearby lymph nodes.
Additional risk ratings
Doctors further group childhood neuroblastoma as low risk, intermediate risk and high risk.
The risk group is based on the child's age when doctors diagnose the disease, the stage of the disease and special features of the cancer cells. Your child's doctor can explain your child's risk level.
Neuroblastoma at Seattle Children's
Neuroblastoma is one of the least common forms of cancer in children. This means fewer doctors have experience treating it. At Children's Hospital, our doctors have had experience treating many children with this illness.
We use a team approach to care for children with cancer. Our multidisciplinary team for neuroblastoma includes cancer doctors (oncologists), a nurse practitioner and a social worker.
We also connect children and families to other resources they may need, such as child life services and nutrition support.
We can offer the latest treatments for your child. Some of our patients receive transplants by doctors who are part of our world-renowned Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Program through our partnership with Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, whose doctors pioneered these transplants.
Dr. Julie R. Park is a national leader in caring for children with neuroblastoma and in studying the disease and is leading the current national Children's Oncology Group trial to advance treatment of high risk neuroblastoma. She sees our young patients in our clinic and in the hospital.
She also works with national groups to find and develop new treatment options, such as new chemotherapy medicines for children at all stages of disease, including those whose cancer comes back after treatment.
Dr. Park takes part in research by the Children's Oncology Group (COG) and the NANT (New Approaches to Neuroblastoma Therapy) consortium. COG is an international organization of childhood cancer specialists who conduct studies on many forms of childhood cancer.
Our dedication to researching this disease means that our patients have the chance to get the very latest treatment options being studied - options not offered at all treatment centers. If your child has neuroblastoma, the team at Children's will talk with you about any studies with treatments that may help.
Neuroblastoma survival rates
Doctors who treat people with cancer use five-year survival rates as one way to measure treatment success. The five-year survival rate means the percentage of patients with the disease who are alive five years after their disease was diagnosed.
For all forms of childhood cancer combined, our five-year survival rate at Children's Hospital is higher than the national average. Our survival rate is 82%. The national average is 76.4%.
For neuroblastoma, our survival rate is nearly 5 points higher than the national average. More than 90% of children with low-risk disease survive. About 70% to 90% of those with intermediate-risk disease survive. Children in the high-risk group have a 30% chance of survival.
Read more childhood cancer statistics.
Read more about research and cancer programs and services at Children's Hospital.