Ah, summer camp. The mosquitoes, the swim races, the
friendships, the bug juice, the postcards home. What child
wouldn't benefit from the fun and structured freedom camps
are no exception. But the prospect can seem daunting to parents and
kids alike - how can you be sure that your child will get the
attention he or she needs? Will your child be able to participate
fully? What about the other kids? Will your child make friends?
Will they understand your child's special needs?
The good news is that there are more camp choices now than at
any other time for kids with special needs. From highly specialized
camps to regular camps that accommodate kids with special needs,
there are options for every child. With careful consideration of
what will benefit your child most, along with thorough research,
you should be able to find the right camp for your child.
What Are the Different Types of Camps?
When it comes to camps, kids with special needs have as many
choices as other children. The Americans with Disabilities Act
(ADA) requires all camps to make reasonable accommodations (such as
the installation of wheelchair-accessible ramps) so that kids with
special needs can attend. So, camps that had never had a child with
special needs attend before may now be on your list of
Inclusionary (or mainstream) camps do just what their name
implies: They include kids with special needs in their groups of
children with regular needs. These camps may have started out
serving only a general population of kids, but they've
gradually changed as the needs of the families they serve have
There are also camps designed just for kids with special needs,
including kids who have learning or behavioral problems, kids with
specific chronic illnesses, and kids with mental or physical
impairments. Many of these camps accept kids with a variety of
needs, but some camps only accept kids with specific problems (such
as camps for kids with diabetes,
, speech or hearing impairment,
, epilepsy, etc.).
Within all of these categories, you'll have even more
choices to consider in terms of duration, philosophy, and cost.
There are nonprofit and for-profit camps, religious camps, camps
run by national organizations, private camps, day camps, camps that
run weekend sessions, and sleepover camps that accept kids for the
What Are the Benefits of Camp?
The benefits of camp for kids with special needs are often the
same as they would be for any child:
- increased confidence and independence
- activity and exercise
- the opportunity to interact with other kids, develop
friendships, and build relationships
- positive role modeling by adults
- a chance for parents to have a likely much-needed break
Independence is another benefit that camp can provide. For
example, an overnight mainstream camp can give a special-needs
child the chance to be without parents, doctors, or physical
therapists for a week. This allows children to do more things for
themselves and learn how to ask friends to help.
Learning that their peers or other adults can help them is also
valuable for kids with special needs. Children can learn to be
assertive in problem-solving and communicating needs.
In addition, camp provides the physical benefits of increased
activity as well. Many kids with disabilities or chronic illnesses
are sedentary and don't often participate in the sports or
recreational activities that their peers do. They therefore miss
out on the social and health benefits that exercise brings. Camp
provides a variety of activities such as swimming, wheelchair
racing, dancing, tennis, or golf. These give immediate health
benefits in terms of improved cardiovascular fitness and also
provide recreational options that can carry over into adult
In addition, many camps combine learning environments with these
physical activities, giving kids with behavioral or learning
problems the chance to develop, or catch up on, needed skills
during the summer.
Starting Your Camp Search
A good way to begin looking for a camp is to make several lists
that establish the basics you're looking for: a list of goals,
a list of caretaking priorities, and a list of other considerations
(such as cost).
You'll also need to figure out which type of camp might best
suit your child:
- inclusionary (or mainstream) camps
- camps for kids with a specific special need
- camps for kids with many different kinds of special
When trying to find the right camp, consider whether your child
has ever been away from home, for the weekend or even longer, and
what experiences might have helped prepare him or her for camp.
This will help you to decide not only the type of camp, but whether
your child is ready for a day camp or a sleepover (residential)
Involving kids in the camp search will help to ensure that they
get the most out of the camp selected. So, ask kids the
- What do you want to get out of summer camp?
- What are your preferences?
- Do you want to go to a coed camp, or just be around kids of
the same gender?
- Are there any activities you really want to try?
- Would you be more comfortable going to a camp with kids who
do or don't have special needs?
- Are you comfortable being away from home? If so, for how
- Do you have classmates or friends who have gone to a summer
camp? If so, which ones? And did they like it?
If it turns out that the idea of camp is a bit overwhelming for
both you and your child, you might want to try starting small, like
weekend sessions at a special-needs camp.
Doing Your Research
Whatever type of camp you're leaning toward, it's
important to do your research. And there are plenty of places to
get information on camps these days. The American Camp Association
(ACA), for example, has an online listing of special-needs camps
that's broken down by the types of camps, cost, length of stay,
state/region, and campers' ages. The site is also loaded with
general as well as age-appropriate advice for parents of would-be
You can also call local chapters of major disability
organizations to find out what camps are available in your area.
Many organizations publish lists of camps and can connect you with
camp directors and former campers.
In addition, you might be able to find a special-needs camp fair
in your area. Check the calendar listings in your local newspapers
and monthly parenting magazines. Many of these are held in January
or February, which means that you need to start your camp search
Of course, part of your research will involve figuring out what
you can afford. The cost of camps varies widely, with some high-end
special-needs camps costing thousands of dollars for multiple-week
Although you can help fund your child's camp experience by
applying for scholarships, experts say you should make sure to do
so from December through March, because the money is gone by April
or May. You can contact charitable organizations and fraternal
organizations (such as the Lions, Kiwanis, and Rotary Clubs, all of
which sponsor special-needs camps). And depending on your
child's specific special need, he or she may be eligible for
financial aid from your state. Other sources of scholarships
include religious or ethnic charities.
One thing to bear in mind, though: You usually
need to find a camp that's willing to take your child - most of
these organizations send the scholarship money to the camp in the
child's name, not to the parents directly.
Questions to Ask
So, how do you narrow down your choices and pick the camp
that's right for your child? Some basic and
special-needs-specific questions you'll need to have answered
- How long are the sessions?
- What's the cost? Are scholarships available?
- Is it coed, girls-only, or boys-only?
- What's the age range of campers?
- Where is it located - and how far away from your home is
- What's the staff-to-camper ratio?
- How old are most of the counselors?
- What type of certification do the counselors have?
- What's the turnover rate? Do kids and staff come
- What's the camp's philosophy? Does it fit with your
goals for your child?
- What's the camp's transportation system like?
- If physical accessibility is an issue, what's the layout
of the camp? What provisions has the camp made (or can it make)
for wheelchairs or crutches?
- If your child needs a special diet, can the camp provide
appropriate meals? If not, can you provide food for your
- Do staff members have a background working with kids with
- Do the counselors have first-aid training?
- What kind of medical staff is available in the infirmary and
during what hours? Can the staff administer any medications your
- If your child has behavior problems, what's the training
and experience of the available staff to help? And how does the
camp staff handle behavioral problems?
- What's the procedure if your child develops a
complication related to his or her medical problems? How far is
the nearest hospital? If your child needs specialized treatment,
is it available at that hospital?
Although you can get some of this information through phone
calls, emails, brochures, and websites, experts recommend visiting
the camp. You can talk to the director, visit the site, and get a
comprehensive picture of where your child will be.
Probably the only way to get a true feel for the camp is for you
and your child to visit it together. This is especially important
if your child is going to a regular (inclusionary or mainstream)
camp where they haven't dealt with many children with special
needs, because it gives you the opportunity to point out changes
they might need to make and to gauge the reaction of the camp's
staff to your requests.
If you can't visit a camp, interview the director and some
staff members to get a feel for the place. Ask them to describe the
physical layout and the kinds of activities your child will do. You
should also ask to speak with other families whose children have
attended the camp to see what their experiences were like. In fact,
word of mouth is one of the most effective ways to find out what
you need to know about each camp.
As you're trying to figure out which camp is best, just
remember that whatever the special need, there's likely a camp
out there to suit your child. With some research and understanding
between you, your child, and the camp director, your camper-to-be
will likely be well on the way to having an
Steven J. Bachrach, MD
Date reviewed: October 2007
Note: All information is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice,
diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor.
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