New Study Helps Scientists Better Understand Why HIV Causes Life-long Infection
HIV integrating into cancer genes sustains infection
HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, has the ability to integrate into the human genome, making it extremely difficult to cure the infection. A new study by scientists at Seattle Children’s Research Institute, University of Washington and Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center found that when HIV integrates into genes involved with cancer, these cells tend to reproduce to a greater extent than others HIV-infected cells. The study entitled "Proliferation of Cells with HIV Integrated into Cancer Genes Contributes to Persistent Infection," was published on July 10, 2014 in the online edition of the journal Science.
“Our findings suggest that HIV may modify the function of some infected cells and that increased proliferation of these cells allows them to survive despite effective treatment,” said Thor A. Wagner, M.D., of the Center for Global Infectious Disease Research at Seattle Children’s Research Institute and co-lead author of the study. Wagner is also assistant professor of pediatrics at the University of Washington.
“Using a test we developed to analyze both the HIV sequence and where it integrates into the chromosome, we found that when HIV inserts into cancer genes the cells containing the virus proliferate more than other HIV-infected cells," said Sherry McLaughlin, Ph.D., senior scientist in the Center for Global Infectious Disease Research at Seattle Children’s Research Institute, research scientist in microbiology at the University of Washington, and co-lead author of the study. “This proliferation may maintain the virus in the body, so that if treatment is stopped, the virus can again become active.”
Since 1995 patients living with HIV have been able to stop the disease from progressing by taking a combination of three antiviral drugs to suppress replication of the virus to undetectable levels. In 1996, measurements of the decline of the virus-infected cells in people taking the medications predicted that complete suppression of the virus for three years would cure the infection. More recently it has become clear that despite effective treatment HIV-infected cells decline much more slowly. This new research suggests that the infection persists in part because the virus is integrated into certain human genes that favor survival.
According to Dr. Wagner, “This research brings us closer to understanding why HIV is such a long lasting infection and may lead us to new avenues to cure HIV.”
For the multi-year study, a total of 534 proviral integration sites were sequenced from three participants at three time-points each. HIV integration at the same chromosomal site was found in multiple cells within each participant throughout follow up, whereas no identical integration sites were shared by different participants, suggesting that HIV-infected cells proliferate.
Three approaches were used to explore whether the distribution of HIV integration sites observed was random or shaped by selective forces. Specifically, researchers examined the distribution of HIV integrations and found them to be in genes associated with cancer, regulation of cell proliferation, or cell survival more than expected.
Authors & Affiliations:
Thor A. Wagner: Seattle Children's Research Institute, University of Washington
Sherry McLaughlin: Seattle Children's Research Institute, University of Washington
Kavita Garg: Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
Charles Y. K. Cheung: Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
Brendan B. Larsen: University of Washington
Sheila Styrchak: Seattle Children's Research Institute
Hannah C. Huang: Seattle Children's Research Institute
Paul T. Edlefsen: Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, University of Washington
James I. Mullins: University of Washington
Lisa M. Frenkel: Seattle Children’s Research Institute, University of Washington
About Seattle Children’s Research Institute
Located in downtown Seattle’s biotech corridor, Seattle Children’s Research Institute is pushing the boundaries of medical research to find cures for pediatric diseases and improve outcomes for children all over the world. Internationally recognized investigators and staff at the research institute are advancing new discoveries in cancer, genetics, immunology, pathology, infectious disease, injury prevention and bioethics, among others. As part of Seattle Children’s Hospital, the research institute brings together leading minds in pediatric research to provide patients with the best care possible. Seattle Children’s serves as the primary teaching, clinical and research site for the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Washington School of Medicine, which consistently ranks as one of the best pediatric departments in the country. For more information, visit http://www.seattlechildrens.org/research.